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Naram-Sin and Gudea are two rulers discussed in this chapter. Naram-Sin is regarded as the emperor of the Akkadian Empire, and his reign was marked by achievement in terms of resource accumulation and army strengthening. In terms of sculpture, Naram-Sin insisted on having his carvings and drawings done on walls and caves. He hoped that by doing so, his name would be passed on from generation to generation in Mesopotamia.
Gudea is the other monarch whose legacy can be established by sculpture. He ruled the Sumerian City-state of Lagash and had his statue, architectural masterpieces in the form of temples and carvings in the region (Stokstad, Cateforis, and Addiss 33-45). The new temples that he erected had his paintings and drawings as a show of his authority in Lagash.
Question 2: Distinctive Features of the Sumerian Ziggurat and Its Development
The most distinctive feature of the ziggurat was the temple on its top. The temple, being at the pinnacle of the ziggurat, created speculations that it was a haven for worshipping gods, against the popular belief that it hosted burial chambers for the royals. Another distinctive feature is the materials used to construct the ziggurat. It was made of mud bricks, in which some were baked while others were unbaked.
What Led to Its Development?
The Sumerian Ziggurat had steps that provided a path the linked heavens and earth. The building was considered sacred. It served as a meeting point between individuals and their gods (Stokstad, Cateforis, and Addiss 33-45). The architectural masterpiece rose to heights of more than 40 feet and was one of the iconic buildings designed and developed by the Sumerians.
Question 3: What Precious Materials Were Used in the Lyre With Bull’s Head From Ur
Gold, shells, silver, and bitumen were used in the construction of the Lyre bull’s head while wood was used as the piece of art’s body. The gold on the head of the bull was a symbolization of the wealth that the empire boasted of. All these material were derived from the city of Ur.
How Stories from the Scenes of Lyre Relate to Its Culture
Culturally, the instrument was used in the celebration of religions, especially in those festivals that were attended by the king. The bull is a representation of the sun god, Shamash that was worshiped by the people of Ur. Therefore, the stories recalled from the scenes of lyre indicate that the culture that produced it acknowledged the celebrations and festivals as well.
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Stokstad, Marilyn, David Cateforis, and Stephen Addiss. Art History: Combined Volume. Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005.
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