Organizational Behavior and Concepts

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The human resources approach is one strategy that the criminal justice system can classify as an organizational behavior idea. According to this methodology, law enforcement organizations' pay is reasonable and will be important in helping them attract highly qualified and motivated employees. Even so, these employers will need to show some care for their staff members by implementing policies like flexible work schedules, housing benefits, and telecommuting. State criminal agencies currently also have a vision and purpose that play a key role in defining the path the organization is intended to go in. (Harvey, 1996). To achieve its goals, criminal justice organizations will have to change this approach to be more community oriented than an ambiguous one. The purpose of this is to create a good culture within the organization which boosts its credibility in the community and improves communication between the law enforcement agencies and the community.

Question 2

Professional Standards and Values

Standards and values considered professional in the criminal justice system particularly within the law enforcement agencies include ethics, courage, and objectivity. Under ethics, it gravitates more toward a personal choice where a person should do what they know is right. As regards a police officer, displaying integrity and honesty are essential in ensuring he/she enforces the law effectively. Also, police officers are supposed to be objective in their professional decisions to prevent cases of biased choices which do not reflect the justness of the justice system. A prejudiced officer public perception on their capacity to serve is reduced and vice versa. Another aspect is courage which enables an officer to face dangers without self-preservation and confidence, for example, coming face to face with an armed suspect.

Question 3

Evidence-based approaches: This can be defined as the approaches with a focus on outcome and interventions which under controlled studies, have been tested using scientific means and proven to be effective.

Professional Standards: It refers to the overall framework in the criminal justice system that serves as the basis for ethical conduct and judgment for efficient and just service delivery.

Values of Criminal Justice System: This refers to a set of principles that define and guide agencies in the criminal justice system. For example, to name a few, access to justice and the pursuit of excellence in the Department of Justice.

Justice: It refers to fair and acceptable judgment and treatment of persons according to set rules and laws without prior prejudice.

Question 4

In its simplest terms, the word criminology refers to the study of criminal acts, their behavior and legal aspects and repercussions of it. As per the definition itself, it provides an element of problem-solving as regards the issue of crime. Criminology is also entwined with the profession of criminal justice which involves the major modules of the criminal justice system and the advancement of criminal law. From the sets of definitions, it is clear that criminology is a profession and not just a conglomeration of theories or a field of studies. An aspect of criminology studied in universities is theoretical criminology which not only describes various crimes and how they occur but explains criminal behavior too. \

Question 5

It can be easily confused about what is considered criminal and what is simply a crime. It can be agreed that theft, murder, and rape are examples of illegal activities with no ambiguous debate. But when it comes to events such as gambling and deviant sexual behavior and abortion, then there exist grey areas as to what crime should be defined as. It can be looked at from two perspectives. Under consensus perspective, specific behaviors are criminalized if members of society agree they are criminal and laws enacted accordingly. The pluralist perspective advocates for diversity and criminalizing behavior only through a process political where the legislature drafts the laws which are further interpreted by the relevant courts.

Question 6

Policing within the premise of the law is well described by two approaches. On one end, the responsibility for the repercussions of their interactions with citizens. It also takes into account the fact that the police have to deal with breakers of the law and delinquents. On the other end, it should be noted that proper policing is also based on the values and practices that guide the operations of a police department. According to US Department of Justice (2003), good policy is central in guiding the discretion of police officers and promote accountability, pivotal in reducing violence and tension between the police and the citizens. Law enforcement agencies with practices that are professional and display integrity are more apt to reinforce citizens’ confidence in police personnel and activities.

Question 7

In general, the police is a ubiquitous organization in this country. It can be used as a means of social control and also for the use of force. Any process that is meant to correct and prevent any form of deviance is referred to as social control. The daily work of the police force in maintaining law and order is well displayed by the mere fact of the existence of the police. Citizens will be less likely to break the law knowing very well that the justice will prevail, creating some form of invincibility for the police departments. As regards the use of force, this is a very ambiguous area where “lawful” use of force is not well defined with the issue of self-defense having its grey areas as well.


Harvey, A. J. Criminal Justice Online Building an Organizational Foundation for the Future.

United States Department of Justice. 2003.

July 15, 2023

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