protective vaccine against Pandemic A(H1N1)

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The wild-type of human influenza is not only present in embryonated embryos, but it can also be used to create vaccine viruses against influenza A. (H1N1). In order to launch the vaccine in 2009, two measures were taken. These include flipped genetic approaches and the traditional reassortment process. The study is organized as follows.

LAIVs (influenza virus vaccines) are believed to decrease death and morbidity rates caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi. The problem is that the structure of viruses is constantly changing, making it impossible to develop successful vaccines. Cancer and HIV treatments have been based on the formulation of vaccines, but that has been quite impossible due to the high level of replication of virus components.

Background/ scaffolding

The changing nature of neuraminidase (NA), hemagglutinin (HA) and glycoproteins leads to a seasonal change of influenza viruses leading to annual epidemics. Pandemic A(H1N1) influenza has been counteracted through the application of various influenza vaccine tests, reverse genetics, candidate and existing vaccine viruses, HA antigen yields and high growth reassortants.

New terms and definitions

Influenza vaccines-these are protective vaccines against influenza viruses.

Candidate vaccine viruses (CVV)- a flu prepared from a CDC and is used by another manufacturer to produce a vaccine.

High growth reassortants (HGRs)- this is a vaccine produced through a double infection of eggs to create a viral vaccine.

HA antigen yield (H7N9)- an improved vaccine virus formed through the combination of hemagglutinin antigen yield.

Research body (quotes)

The research was done to test “two trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV), and it was done over six consecutive seasons. The changing trend of the virus did not allow for a single accomplishment but only one vaccine at a time. Influenza viruses have a high tendency of evading human body due to the change of immune response may be due to continued use of antibiotics. The vaccine is to be re-administered and re-formulated according to a current seasonal influenza. The first variable was “immune-dominant hemagglutinin against immune sub-dominant stalk.” Hemagglutinin vaccines neutralize any acidic or basic state introduced by a virus and counteract it through the expression of head domains. According to the research procedures, “The conserved stalk domain of sparked HA subtypes are used for a universal development of the vaccine.” However, the vaccine does not contribute to high antibody levels, and it forms a sub-dominant stalk leading to a strain-specific antibody. The circulating virus is controlled by immunization that introduces chimeric HAs to induce exotic head domains.

Methods+ nuances of findings

For the unvaccinated group 5 children, there is a possibility that one of them will visit a clinic due to the influence of influenza A. For two doses of influenza TIV, yearly efficacies ranged from 42% to 69%. Influenza resembled with circulating virus and the efficacy associated to illness ranged from 52% and 59%. The TIV vaccine reduced the morbidity and mortality rate associated with influenza A and B.

Most detailed section

There is a need to consider that the reverse genes of individuals matter. Some people will find the vaccine useful while others will have no supportive HA antigen yield. Therefore each respective candidate vaccine virus has to match and have supportive combinations for any alteration that may take place.

Challenges and next steps

Most of the vaccines are liquid, and they require refrigeration under a controlled temperature. It becomes a challenge to preserve them in case there is a failure of coolant systems. For the stability of some vaccines, there is a need to convert the liquid vaccines to powder. It becomes a challenge since some of the vaccines may be altered if poor conversion methods are selected. Finally, the immune response depends on peptides, and there is need to consider the variability in to cover a broad span and serve a large population. The next step is selecting of more durable vaccines that can survive under low refrigeration techniques

January 05, 2023

Health Life


Illness Biology Hero

Subject area:

Influenza Human Challenges

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