Racism and its Effects

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Racism has existed from the beginning of time. It is the act of treating other persons poorly or differently than others because they are of a different race, gender, ethnic origin, ethnicity, or colour (Gillborn, 2014). As a consequence, believing one's race is superior leads to bigotry. Racism has had many negative consequences in the United States of America. The words "activist" and "non-activist" have opposite views. Activists believe that the government must play a vital role in repairing vulnerabilities in a market-based economy. In a capitalist economy, imbalances and disparities have a disproportionate impact on market processes and institutions. In this regard, the government should develop a raft of policy measures and pieces of legislation to eliminate flaws in a market economy. On the other hand, non-activists argue that there should be free markets with self-regulation. They posit that free markets are the best way of ensuring creativity, growth, and innovation. This paper is seeking for examining how racism in schools disproportionately affects minority group in the United States of America.

Racism and its Effects on the US Economy

For hundreds of years, racism has been a big challenge to the American society. It suffices to mention that racism in the US is not limited to a particular race, but encompasses all races. In the United States, it is still evident in all sectors of the economy. The nation is inhabited by people from different races including Hispanic, African American, Latinos, and American Chinese among the others. Racism has heightened tensions among various races in the US and undermines the economy because of unequal distribution of resources and application of relevant market policies. There have been reports of racial killings in several states in the country (Karim, 2017). The American citizens have the responsibility to learn to accept, fight racism, and embrace all irrespective of the differences. Unity of all races will enhance economic growth and development as a result of respect for each other (Hunter, 2016).

Racism is still entrenched in the American society despite the initial effort to address the problem. The US government has the responsibility of solving the problem of racism. It is crucial to note that some steps have been taken in the past decades to combat racism in the country. However, a plethora of literature shows that racism is rife in the economy (Warmington, Gillborn, Rollock, & Demack, 2017). Elimination of racism is crucial in economic integration to increase the gross domestic product (GDP) of the country. For the economy to grow favorably, a qualified human resource that is creative, innovative, and proactive must be developed. Such human resource qualities can be attained when racial factors do not undergird training and learning in schools.

Racism and Education in the US: Need for the Same Level of Success

The American public education experienced a profound transformation. The transformation was triggered by the ruling of the Supreme Court in 1954. The issue in contention was the separation of schools for White and Black students (Rollins, 2017). The court determined that the act of segregation of schools was inherently unequal and as a result, there was unprecedented integration in the history of the country (Gillborn, 2014). However, a conservative high court in the 1980s limited the effect of desegregation orders. Most of the judges embarked on releasing several school districts based on desegregation plans. These fundamental changes have resulted in re-segregation hence threatening to hinder the educational opportunities of underprivileged students (Karim, 2017). Additionally, it has led to lack of racial understanding in the United States of America. In some quarters, it has been argued that re-segregation in schools only create racial animosity among the American population instead of enhancing integration and cohesion (Hunter, 2016). The government has the responsibility of ensuring that there is equal access to quality education and integration towards shaping the future of the country.

There has been the famous “mismatch thesis” that opines that admission policies which surround the affirmative action usually disproportionately accept students with grades and low-than average test scores (Warmington et al., 2017). The argument posited by the “mismatch thesis” therefore revolves around the notion that students admitted through affirmative action are not well prepared to study in top-tier universities in the United States of America. In this line of thinking, students who benefit from affirmative action as a mechanism for entering the universities face potential failure in circumstances where they would have succeeded. In a much wider perspective, therefore, the “mismatch thesis” sees the affirmative action as contributing to more harm than good for numerous Black students who gain entry to the universities courtesy of these policies (Warmington et al., 2017). It is critical to point out that we are not in a post-racial age. It is evident that we are living in a post Black and White era of discrimination. There are several additional forms of discrimination occasioned by melting pot trends (Hunter, 2016). In the United States, it can be argued that prejudice is not all that uniform as it used to be in the past but instead, there exist micro-prejudices that cannot be ignored.

DuBois was right as pertains to the challenge of the 21st century. It is because in America people are still divided along color lines (Karim, 2017). In recent years, there has been a sustained effort to water down the provisions of affirmative action in employment and education. The determination to influence and do away with the gains made in the policy arena points to deep racial lines in the United States. However, to Americans who believe that discrimination had long disappeared would argue that affirmative action gives an unfair advantage to minority groups (Warmington et al., 2017). According to minority groups who undergo or experience discrimination, affirmative action protects their opportunities that are likely to undercut by the nonexistence of the affirmative obligation. In America, the allocation of opportunities has become more dependent on education and knowledge necessitates concern and anxiety.

There are gaps in educational achievement between minorities and Whites based on standardized test scores (Rollins, 2017). There is the presumption that equal opportunity now exists in the United States and therefore low levels of achievement among minorities are caused by culture, lack of effort, and function of genes. Education results for minority students are a reflection of unequal access to critical educational resources. These educational resources include quality curriculum and qualified teachers. Further, the low educational outcomes among minority students are not as a result of race (Gillborn, 2014; Warmington et al., 2017). Studies have revealed that educational system in the United States of America is characterized inequities. Students routinely get varied opportunities in learning that reflects the social status of individuals. In Asia and Europe, schools are funded equally and centrally. In the United States, wealthiest schools spend ten times more than poorest schools in most states (Hunter, 2016). Despite clear funding differences, the prevailing perception is that if that non-achievement by minority students is their fault. There is the need to address these inequalities to make American schools better places for students.

Minority students continue experiencing unequal and substantially separate educational opportunities. Several minority students go to schools that are mainly minority in nature (Karim, 2017). The analysis conducted data developed for financing schools in Louisiana, Texas, and Alabama found out that schools serving students of color had fewer qualified teachers and poor curriculum offerings (Hunter, 2016). Indeed, inequitable school systems and biased financing cause disproportionate harm to economically disadvantaged minority students. Studies have shown that the disadvantaged minority students occupy states that are located in the south and are characteristically poor. Further, states having the widest educational expenditure disparities are the industrial ones (Gillborn, 2014).

In the United States of America, there are savage inequalities experienced between minority schools and their suburban counterparts that are well financed and with less or no special needs (Warmington et al., 2017). For instance, in MacKenzie High School located in Detroit was found to be teaching word processing without computers since the school could not afford them. Further, in some minority schools, laboratories lack usable dissecting kits and tables. The neighboring suburban school is well financed, and the students enjoy computers with super-fast internet connections (Gillborn, 2014). It is evidence and reality of how unequal the educational system in the United States is crafted along racial lines. The unequal opportunities have a ripple effect on the economy and wealth creation. This disproportionate financing between poor minority and white schools is an indication of a society that is riddled with racism. The poor minority continue to swelter under the heat of oppression and limited opportunities even in workplaces.

It is critical to point out that a student with minority backgrounds is placed at significant risk in America as a result of traditions that allow large variations in the qualification of teachers. New teachers deemed to have not met certification standards are posted to teach disadvantaged students in minority schools and low-income areas (Rollins, 2017). On the contrary, highly qualified teachers are deployed to wealthier schools for the Whites. Studies have shown that schools with high enrollment of minority children are faced with limited chances of acquiring a science or math teacher with a degree and duly licensed. In asserting these disparities, a report prepared in 1994 showed that a third of teachers in disadvantaged schools had no minor in their core field (Warmington et al., 2017). Moreover, seventy percent teach in these schools without evidence of a minor in their secondary areas of teaching. The radical varying teaching forces in the United States cause profound effects. A comparison of a group of low-achieving and exceptionally effective elementary schools with the same demographic traits in New York City revealed a huge difference in student mathematics and reading scores at grades three, six, and eight was necessitated by variations in teacher qualification (Warmington et al., 2017).

Several researchers have shown that underprepared teacher often less effective in classrooms. Additionally, underprepared teachers face challenges in developing curriculum, student motivation, classroom management, and proper teaching strategies (Gillborn, 2014). Lack of understanding the backgrounds of children including growth, development, and support for learning undermine teachers’ abilities. Racism in education has profound effects on students’ learning capabilities (Warmington et al., 2017). Minority students face enormous challenges that the American society has placed on them. Uncertified teachers in high-poverty schools in the US are unable to understand learning styles of students and variances. Furthermore, the anticipation of students’ difficulties and knowledge, redirecting instructions to meet the needs of students, and creativity is very low (Warmington et al., 2017). There is the interrelationship between curriculum quality and teacher expertise since curriculum that is challenging needs an expert teacher. Students become more advantaged when they are taught by teachers who are experts (Hunter, 2016). On the other hand, lower-track students who are taught by less able teachers often received less demanding materials and lower-quality teaching. All these factors fundamentally affect the ability of minority students to partake in both curricular and extra-curricular activities in their schools (Karim, 2017).


To sum up, racism is still rife in the United States with adverse effects on all sectors of the economy. The problem of racism is exhibited in several forms within the country. In particular, education has been affected thereby leaving the minority students in the precarious position. Several studies have shown that high-poverty minority schools are fiscally starved and under-resourced. It is crucial to note that with unequal educational opportunities, minority students face limited chances of employment or taking part in the mainstream economy of the United States. The government should craft policy measures that are aimed at establishing equity among all Americans. It is unfortunate that the inability of the minority groups to perform academically is linked to racial backgrounds. Nothing can be further from the truth because high-poverty minority schools are characterized by teachers who are not certified and sheer lack of resources. This paper identifies the need to involve all Americans in developing solutions for social, economic, and political problem. In a nutshell, strengthening the economy of the US require the provision of equal educational standards to all its citizens without stressing on color or racial factors.


Gillborn, D. (2014). Racism as policy: A critical race analysis of education reforms in the United States and England. The Educational Forum, 78(1), 26-41).

Hunter, M. (2016). The race for education: Class, White tone, and desegregated schooling in South Africa. Journal of Historical Sociology, 29(3), 319-358.

Karim, R. (2017, November 18). Race and education. CQ Researcher by CQ Press. Retrieved from http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2014090500&type=hitlist&num=2

Rollins, J. A. (2017). The depth of racism in the US: What it means for children. Pediatric Nursing, 43(5), 213-218.

Warmington, P., Gillborn, D., Rollock, N., & Demack, S. (2017). “They can’t handle the race agenda”: Stakeholders’ reflections on race and education policy, 1993-2013. Educational Review, 1-18.

November 23, 2022

Racism Biology

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