The Importance of Expertise Assessment in Groups

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The report highlights the principles and practices with close association to methodologies that enhance leadership by applying collaborative developmental action inquiry (CDAI). CDAI is crucial for the support of adult understanding regarding the existing connections between adaptive leadership and the use of transformative learning. As such, the paper focuses on exploring transformative learning, the different approached of knowing, and action logics which include single, double and triple-loop learning strategies (Nicolaides & McCallum, 2013).

Four Key Points of The Article

The first key point revolves around the realization that the contemporary powerful and dynamic challenges continue to evolve thus suggesting the potential absence of any sector or industry that does not experience the need to increase developmental capacity. Therefore, transformational learning coupled with adaptive leadership are two critical entities felt globally, and the need to utilize their influence across diverse sectors is becoming increasingly necessary. Secondly, the current complex and challenging era calls for the creation of capacity for all adults as one of the most appropriate options for shaping the future. Simply put, capacity development is an essential requirement which paves the way for adults to mold not only their future desires as individuals but also collective development. Thirdly, the article provides an in-depth illustration of adaptive leadership using the analogy of an educator who encourages learners to take the time to discover, innovate and also embrace the need for collective responsibility for any situation. Therefore, leadership is considered a special educational approach where the instructors create challenges, questions, choices and viewpoints without answers for the learners to solve. In the meantime, the teachers gauge progress as learning takes place. Finally, the article provides evidence that adaptive leadership depends on transformative learning as well as inquiry in action. This statement highlights that transformative learning is a crucial tool for leaders and stakeholders to go beyond the confines of information and behavioral learning which is defined as single-loop learning. Instead, double-loop and triple-loop learning provide the ultimate platform for constructive development (Nicolaides & McCallum, 2013).

Researchers Conclusions

The authors finalize by proposing that transformational learning is a crucial requirement in the volatile, complex and ambiguous conditions of the contemporary world. As such, the required skills and competencies today for public engagement call for the limitless capacity of adults to utilize their know-how and also continue learning better ways of knowledge application to meet these dynamic demands. Therefore, learning how to gain knowledge is illustrated as an essential skill and CDAI proves to be the method that intentionally focuses on developing the proficiency of adaptive leaders. Critical skills include the ability to reflect and perform with agility and informed decision-making. The foundation of CDAI in enhancing the capacity of adaptive leaders is therefore valuable for leaders in all sectors for the organizational development of professionals. In other words, CDAI increases the abilities of adaptive leaders and enhances the development of personal and collaborative capacity for creative growth (Nicolaides & McCallum, 2013).

Research Relationship to Leadership Theories

This paper is strongly associated with the premises brought forward regarding situational leadership which highlights the fact that different situations call for certain types of leadership. The theory purports that situational challenges tend to constrain leaders thus prompting them to adapt based on the prevailing situation. Therefore, the findings of this article promote the philosophy of situational leadership by encouraging the application of collaborative developmental action inquiry as a means of enhancing the capacity of adaptive leaders. Situationally influenced leaders can use the CDAI approach to develop themselves thus adapting to situations in the global arena today.

Article 2

Research Focus, Hypothesis and Purpose

The purpose of the research paper is to explain the factors that enable the useful contribution of the knowledge of experts working in groups, how group members assess this expertise to make the best of them.

Four Key Points of The Article

The first point dwells on the difficulty of expertise assessment in groups. Some research have striven to develop mechanisms by which groups can evaluate the individual potential. For instance, the transactive memory system is where related individuals encode, store and retrieve information in different vital areas. The system has the ideas of who knows what on a team in a map like a layout that shows the specific expertise among the group members. To get the best of each member, the participants must trust, coordinate and use the knowledge effectively. Through continuous interaction, the members can access unique experience when performing the tasks. Research on the transactive system has shown positive effects on group performance, effectiveness, and member satisfaction. However, realizing the fruits of the system, members have to define the basis of their reaction to member contributions (Barton & Bunderson, 2014).

Secondly, there are the mindless and mindful expertise assessment techniques. Many at times, people link the observable physical traits to conclude an individual’s abilities. Such kind of assessment procedures have flaws and tend to be inaccurate. Nevertheless, a mindful approach cognitively uses facts and prolonged observations. The assessment procedure ignores stereotypic conclusions associated with the physical behaviors of an individual. Conscious method to assessment must perform analytical and active processing of information to make clear and accurate findings on expertise. Expectancy theory facilitates the motivation of group members to conduct careful evaluations that tends to depend on the expected benefits from such evaluations.

The third point is the critical propositions of mindful evaluations. The expectancy theory and model make some assumptions in its application in mindful assessment. For instance, the model assets that individuals get motivation where one believes the exercise will give an individual and distinct assessment particular expertise. Also, the perception of the possible betterment of the group from the evaluation of the competence is a morale booster. The personal valuation of the higher tax performance makes the assessment more objective. The dependency on a given skill in a group makes the participant more motivated to get best out of an individual’s knowledge in both small and large groups, as well as in cases of the high-level task (Barton & Bunderson, 2014).

Last are the issues regarding future directions on the model of careful assessment of expertise. One of the proposals for the involvement of intragroup dynamics like trust to make the process more efficient. However, expression of confidence must not overshadow the group the members in common working scenarios. Similarly, the situational factors must determine the motivation levels of the evaluation process since the previous models do not consider the natural superiority complexes among task force that influence motivation levels. The suggestions are the examination of how the dynamics differ among the individuals in a group (Barton & Bunderson, 2014).

Researchers Conclusions

Regarding expertise assessment, the ability of group participants to identify specialized knowledge depends on; knowing individual strengths and then coordinate in a manner that conforms to the understanding. There is an increasing trend where organizations consider themselves knowledgeable and managing the knowledge is their top agenda. Surprisingly, however, it is impossible to control what is not understood. Therefore, to manage the hidden potentials, organizations have conduct assessments first (Barton & Bunderson, 2014).

Research Relationship to Leadership Theories

The paper findings and suggestions aim to change how people assess to determine the strengths of colleagues in the mixed work environment. This process correlates with the objectives of transformational leaders in understanding their followers and motivating them towards the realization of organizational goals. The paper has suggested that quite often, people make conclusions based on other’s outward behaviors. However, the technique needs to change through a deep understanding of the individual expertise before findings are made.

Article 3

Research Focus, Hypothesis and Purpose

Among the numerous factors that dictate the quality of life and health is the environment and health determinant. Complex environment health problems arise contemporarily and the focus of the research is to identify the categories of compound environmental health problems such as pollution and the suitable approaches to handling such problems. This article has four key points which include; identification of the problems, distinct categories of the issues, illustrations of the problem, and the most effective approaches to addressing such problems (Kreuter, DeRosa, Howze, & Baldwin, 2004).

Four Key Points of The Article

In understanding environmental health problems that face the human populace on a daily basis, there are two discrete classes: tame problems and wicked problems. The term wicked issues denote issues that are relatively challenging to curb as they are governed by factors which may change in the course of solving these problems. On the antithetical opinion, tame issues can be characterized and tackled through workable solutions, applying systematic approaches of their respective specialty. The relevancy of tame and wicked problems in environmental health is illustrated in four key factors. First, a wicked problem presents no immediate concord by the parties involved. An exemplary case is when there is data revealing a portion of a large population afflicted by high rates of chronic illnesses or prevalence of violence. Such a problem leaves a lot to be questioned without providing the most appropriate solution since the root cause is unknown. Secondly, problems become wicked when many stakeholders input their divergent ideas without coming to a consensus on what the problem is all about. The factor is illustrated when people of a locality realize they have been subjected to harmful contaminants by a major company that offers service to the vast population. It is typical that varied reactions are bound to crop up concerning the issue. Thirdly, wicked problems in environmental health are evidenced by solutions which are not clear-cut as there is no definitive solution or formal criteria to determine if the solution is final and effective. Wicked problems are unique and they rule out the use of identical approaches in solving the same issue in different areas (Kreuter, DeRosa, Howze, & Baldwin, 2004).

Researchers Conclusions

The gravity of learning how to tell apart these two problems lies in the fact that the process of handling a wicked environmental health issue yields non-expert-driven solutions that can be practical in solving problems of a tame nature. By comparison, strategies to solve tame problems offer crucial information to those tackling wicked problems, therefore they are mutually linked. Nonetheless, leaders of problem-solving are more likely to find ideal solutions when they embrace the philosophy of inclusiveness since it minimizes mistrust that can cripple well-intended health promotion endeavors. Scores of environmental health problems befit the wicked problems bracket since they are intertwined in all dimensions of the community's structure and are coupled with scientific qualm. Therefore, ordinary expert-oriented strategies of problem-solving are inadequate on their own. Public health practitioners ought to acclimatize themselves to changes in science, stakeholder values, and the effect of actions aimed at curtailing environment health threats to the public. Moreover, they should merge a systemic thinking approach and skills of promoting health, together with patience to confront wicked problems pertaining to environmental health (Kreuter, DeRosa, Howze, & Baldwin, 2004).

Research Relationship to Leadership Theories

One of the leadership theories that this research relates to is skills approach which holds that potent leadership is the fruit of three skills; human, technical, and notional skills. Human skills refer to the ability to work with the people you lead while technical skills imply to the adeptness in a particular activity being undertaken. Notional or conceptual skills relate to the potentiality to work with broad ideas. In solving major environmental health problems, a leader should exhibit the three skills to come up with worthwhile solutions.

Article 4

Research Focus, Hypothesis and Purpose

Government organizations have proved their efficiency and reliability in executing policies that are typically standardized, but the hurdle lies in responding to non-routine, complex matters. It is less astonishing that the majority of public officials are unable to handle some of the wicked problems. The fundamental purpose of this research is to scrutinize and examine the significant facets arising from the analysis of wicked problems, shortcomings to tackling these problems, and the practical strategies to restrain the difficulties. The four key points evident in the article are the drawbacks in offering solutions for wicked problems, the approaches to the complex issues, the issues that may arise due to wicked problems, and how to handle them promptly (Head & Alford, 2013).

Four Key Points of The Article

The questions about wicked problems and their underlying challenges for policy making are linked to the scope of government hence the available methods of understanding and addressing such issues are of chief importance. However, most of the challenges are connected to the deeply-embedded discrepancy in the nature and relevance of such problems, as well as their solutions. The problems are often viewed to be associated with institutional complexity, scientific doubt, and multiple interests of stakeholders. Consequently, it is vital to spot a varied range of problem types which would aid in illustrating the characteristics of wicked problems and also expound on the intensities of various problems. Tame problems are considered to have standard solutions, with less complexity and uncertainty since addressing challenges gets more crucial as problems show high levels of uncertainty, for example when stakeholders have differing opinions. Additionally, the increase in divergent opinions concerning a complex issue calls for a revamped, quality management and leadership since a diverse situation is related to a wicked problem. The decision maker in a wicked problem has to make several considerations, other than mere collaboration, before choosing the most appropriate way to tackle the issue (Head & Alford, 2013).

Researchers Conclusions

Similarly, while handling wicked problems, leaders are prone to shortcomings due to the complexity of such issues. Customary types of public administration have not succeeded in offering productive measures against the problems as they have emphasized on monitoring input at the expense of narrowing opportunities to think on a wider scope about issues that may arise together with wicked problems. Besides faulty approaches to decision-making, the structure and formalities involved in implementing the decisions have also contributed to the limited capacity to curb the complex problems. The key strategies for dealing with wicked problems include; networked management whereby the leaders work together with others who have adequate knowledge and a stake in the complex issue. Secondly, the ways of thinking about potential solutions should be broadened as well as restructuring the models of leadership to introduce new models that can better understand the dissent of interests and authority(Head & Alford, 2013).

Research Relationship to Leadership Theories

From the research, a relationship can be linked to the leadership theory of authentic leadership which aims at building the admissible nature of a leader via open, honest, and trustworthy relationships with the people. Such interactions should emphasize on magnifying the people's input as well as upholding ethics. In tackling wicked problems, a leader should show exemplary character by prioritizing the interests of followers through honesty in the approaches they execute to address complex issues affecting the followers.


Barton, M. A., & Bunderson, J. S. (2014). Assessing member expertise in groups: An expertise dependence perspective. Organizational Psychology Review , 4(3), 228-257.

Head, B. W., & Alford, J. (2013). Wicked problems: Implications for public policy and management. Administration & Society , DOI: 10.1177/0095399713481601.

Kreuter, M., DeRosa, C., Howze, E. H., & Baldwin, G. (2004). Understanding wicked problems: A key to advancing environmental health promotion . Health Education & Behavior , 31(4), 441-454.

Nicolaides, A., & McCallum, D. C. (2013). Inquiry in action for leadership in turbulent times: Exploring the connections between transformative learning and adaptive leadership. Journal of Transformative Education, 11(4), 246-260.

January 19, 2024




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