The term Correction in the US Federal and Criminal Justice System

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Incarceration in the US

In the US Federal and Criminal Justice Systems, the word "Correction" is used in lieu of the word "Penology." The US ranks among the most incarcerated nations in the globe. In the nation's jails and institutions, about 2.2 million people are presently incarcerated. This populace has increased by up to 500% over the last 40 years. The legislation and US policy have changed, which has greatly contributed to the rise in the prison population. These patterns have caused congestion, necessitating state-level expansion of the criminal justice system. (Gaines & Miller, 2016).

Presentence Investigation

A presentence investigation is conducted thoroughly to determine if the available facts are relevant to the sentencing. The judge dispenses a presentence report when the federal courts find enough information in order exercise meaningfully the authority of statutory sentencing. Before sentencing, the court focuses on highlighted issues by allowing parties to respond to the presentence report. Hearing may be the best way to resolving disputed issues. The court then gives respective parties reasonable notice when contemplating departure. While sentencing the defendant, the court will ensure that crime victims are their rights under article 18 U.S.C (Currie, 2013).


Parole refers to provisional release of prisoners that agree on particular court conditions before completing their sentence. Some of the conditions of parole include refraining from alcohol and drugs, avoiding contact with victims and maintain contacts with parole officers. Prisoners who serve sentences below 30 years may apply for a parole hearing. This application must be submitted within 120 after committing to Federal Institutions. The Parole Commission then conducts an interim hearing after every 18-24 months. The commission then considers substantial factors, either positive or negative, to warrant the date of release. It also conducts a pre-lease record reviews to determine if the inmate has maintained a record at the institution that is satisfactory. The Parolees are assigned Parole Officers to whom they report. The set of conditions upon which Parolees are required to adhere aim at protecting the safety of the public. The D.C offenders released from prisons are placed under the supervision of Offender Supervision Agency. If the Parole Commission receives a notification that a particular parolee has violated the terms of release, a warrant of arrest is released and the parolee is returned to custody promptly. A hearing is afforded for the offender and the parolee is returned to prison to complete his sentence (Edge, 2009).

Private Prisons

The Bureau of Justice and Statistics reveals that private prisons host about 18% Federal Prisoners and 7% State Prisoners. This figure represents over 95, 000 prisoners. About three-quarters of detainees from Federal Immigration are held in private prisons. Those who support private prisons urge that the government could save significant amounts of money through private prisons. However, private prisons have often been linked to many cases of atrocious conditions and violence. Recently, the US reviewed 13 private prisons and found that they hardly maintain the required standards of security and safety. Private prisons were set up in the US to curb the sudden increase in the country's number of prisoners. Between 1999 and 2014, the number of the detainees in private prisons rose by over 90 percent (Gaines & Miller, 2016).


People who are booked in correctional facilities are referred to as inmates. Jail refers to a containment area where offers waiting for sensing or trail are kept. Individuals in jail may not necessarily be guilty of crimes. On the other hand, prisons are set up for individual who are convicted (Gaines & Miller, 2016).


Currie, E. (2013). Crime and Punishment in America. Berkely.

Edge, L. B. (2009). Locked Up: A History of the US Prison System. Twenty-First Century.

Gaines, L. K., & Miller, R. L. (2016). Criminal Justices in Action. Cengage Learning.

July 15, 2023

Law Government Crime


Federal Government

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