Types of Joints Essay

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Function: The skull supports the structures that make up the face. It also provides a protective covering for the brain.



Function: The spine provides support to the entire body and specifically to the heavy bones making up the skull. It also facilitates movement by allowing free movement of body parts such as bending, leaning, and stretching. The spine also protects the nerves together with the spinal cord. Similarly, it is plenty of bone that is associated with the production of red blood cells as well as minerals from the hollow chamber of bones.


Structure: They are located in the upper as well as lower extremities. The lower limbs constitute femur, tibia, and fibula whereas the upper limb constitutes ulna and humerus.


Long bones are hard as well as dense to provide the body with strength and structure. They also allow mobility of the limbs through their interaction with both muscles and tendons.


What type of joint is this? Describe how it works and why

this is useful.

Satures is a fibrous joint that is exclusively located in the skull. This joint allows bones to be joined by Sharpey’s fibers instead of the joint cavity. These joints allow insignificant movement of the skull bones which is essential for maintaining the structure of the skull. However, they allow compression of the skull during delivery.


What type of joint is this? Describe how it works and

why this is useful.

The joint at the vertebral disc is referred to as the cartilaginous joint. This joint allows minimal movement due to the cartilage that is between the adjoining bones. This joint is useful because it provides both motion and flexibility to the body frame.


What type of joint is this? Describe how it works and why

this is useful.

The joint between articular cartilages is known as a synovial joint. This joint is characterized with synovial fluid in addition to reinforcing ligaments that hold bones together. Synovial joints allow free movement of the limbs since they are found between the bones that make up limbs.


There are 6 types of Synovial Joints in the human body.

They are the most common type of joint. Describe the

structure and explain the role of each of the

compnonent parts.

i. Plane joints are located between the flat surfaces of two bones. They exclusively allow side-to-side movement of the bones without any rotation. These joints are also known as nonaxial joints because they don’t allow rotation movement. They allow movement of the wrist.

ii. Hinge joints link a cylindrical end of a bone to a concave end of another bone. They allow rotation to only one direction, influencing them to be referred to as uniaxial joints. These joints are found on the elbow as well as the ankle.

iii. Pivot joints link the rounded end of a bone to the sheath-formed end of another bone. These joints are also called uniaxial joints. This joint is found in the elbow between ulna and radius.

iv. Condyloid joints connect the rounded convex articular end of one bone to the rounded concave end of another bone. Since they join rounded ends of bones, these joints allow side to side as well as forward and backward movement of bones. However, they don’t allow rotation of bones just like saddle joints. These joints are located in the knuckles.

v. Saddle joints constitute of concave and convex surfaces on the same articular surfaces. They allow side to side as well as the backward and forward movement of bones exclusive of rotation. These joints allow movement in two planes, thus their name ‘condyloid joints.’ Saddle joints are found in the thumb between bones referred to as carpal and metacarpal.

vi. Ball-and-socket joints connect the spherical end of a bone to the socket end of another bone that is concave and rounded. These joints allow movements in all directions including rotation, leading to them being known as multiaxial joints. They are in the hip as well as the shoulder.  


Identify this tissue and explain it’s properties and functions.

The tissue that joins muscle to the bone is known as tendon. This tissue constitute of proteoglycan components that influence their mechanical properties. Tendons are associated with the movement of the bone structure.


Identify this tissue and explain it’s properties and


A ligament is a tissue that joins two bones together to result in a joint. It constitutes a dense, white as well as fibrous elastic tissue. It is tough and flexible, hence, a strong connecting tissue for the bones.


Identify this tissue and explain it’s properties and functions.

Articular cartilage is the tissue that covers the end of a bone. This tissue is smooth to allow easy movement since it allows bones to slide or glide against each other with insignificant friction.


Name 3 types of muscles and compare their properties.

The three main types of muscles include skeletal, cardiac, plus smooth muscle. Skeletal muscle is associated with the movement of bones together with other structures. Cardiac muscle influences the contraction of the heart to result in the pumping of blood. The smooth muscles on the other hand form organs such as the stomach.

Skeletal muscle is made up of thick muscle fibers that are placed close to each other to form bundles that are supplied with motor neurons besides blood vessels. The smooth muscles constitute an autonomic nervous system in addition to cells that allow contraction and relaxation of the muscle. The cardiac muscle on the other is found in the myocardium layer of the heart, and it constitutes of cells known as cardiocytes. Cardiac muscles are shorter and thicker than the skeletal muscles. 


Explain the stages of the sliding filament hypothesis of

muscles contraction.

1. The first stage is referred to as muscle activation. During this stage, the motor nerves are claimed to stimulate action potential that leads to the passing of a neuron to what is known as a neuromuscular junction. It is at this stage that sarcoplasmic reticulum is stimulated to release to allow the passage of calcium to the muscle cells.

2. The second stage is known as muscle contraction. During this stage, an excessive amount of calcium is claimed to flow into muscle cell that is bound to troponin, leading to the binding of actin with myosin. The ATP energy facilitates the binding of actin with myosin.

3. The third stage is referred to as recharging. At this stage, ATP is re-manufactured to allow actin together with myosin to remain in their robust binding state.

4. The fourth stage is known as relaxation. This stage is claimed to occur when the stimulation of the nerves terminates. Calcium is pumped to the sarcoplasmic reticulum, leading to the detachment of actin and myosin. The resume their unbound state, influencing the relaxation of the muscle.  


Explain how antagonistic muscles work to bend the arm.

Antagonistic muscles are made up of biceps and triceps that are in a way that allows flexing of one of them when the other one is extending. Thus, the shortening of the biceps and extending of the tricep at the same time leads to the bending of the arm. Similarly, when the triceps shortens, and the bicep extends, the arm straightens.  


Describe the effects of Bad Posture

Bad posture results in the straining of the joints and muscles. Bad posture can cause constriction of intestines, and as a result, cause digestive problems. Poor posture also impairs the normal flow of blood and oxygen, leading to breathing difficulties. Similarly, it is mainly associated with the experienced back, shoulder as well as neck pain.


Describe what happens during poor lifting techniques.

Improper lifting techniques are mostly associated with the occurrence of back injuries. They cause excessive stress on the muscles of the lower back which can lead to muscle strain. Equally, these techniques can cause disc injury by leading to their rapture. Moreover, improper lifting techniques can cause joint injury since they can become locked as a result of irritation.


Explain the effects of Arthritis on the body

Arthritis affects the joints by causing swelling of knees and fingers. Rheumatoid arthritis also impairs other body parts by causing problems like bone thinning, impairment of functions of the kidney, and skin rashes.

August 04, 2023



Biology Human Body

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