About Alzheimer’s

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Cerebral turbulence that causes memory loss 1. Promotion affects 5.3 million Americans and is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. There are two basic forms of the disorder. Familial Promotion has an effect on people under the age of 65, accounting for almost 500,000 advertisement events in the United States alone1. The majority of Advertising cases occur in adults aged 65 and over and are listed as intermittent Advertisement. The predominance of Promotion changes among a wide range of elements, including Age, co-morbidities, hereditary qualities, and training level. There is no real way to conclusively analyze Promotion without playing out an examination. There is no cure for Advertisement, however encouraging exploration and advancement for early location and treatment is in progress.


Alois Alzheimer, a German neurologist, found Alzheimer’s sickness in 1906 What’s more, psychiatrist2

The sickness was at first seen in a 51-year-old lady named Auguste D. Her family conveyed her to Dr. Alzheimer in 1901 in the wake of identity changes as a part of her identity and conduct. The family revealed issues with memory, trouble talking, and disabled cognizance. Dr. Alzheimer later portrayed Auguste as having a forceful type of dementia, showing in memory, dialect and behavioral deficits. Dr. Alzheimer noted numerous strange side effects, incorporating trouble with discourse, fomentation, and confusion. He took after her watch over five years, until her passing in 1906. Following her passing, Dr. Alzheimer played out an examination, amid which he discovered emotional shrinkage of the cerebral cortex, greasy stores in blood vessels, and decayed cerebrum cells.

He found neurofibrillary tangles and feeble plaques; Alzheimer's sickness is regularly mistaken for typical maturing and dementia. Extreme memory misfortune, normal for Promotion, isn't a side effect of typical maturing. Solid maturing may include the progressive loss of hair, weight, stature and bulk. Skin may turn out to be more delicate and bone thickness can be lost.

A decline in hearing and vision may happen, and also an abatement in metabolic rate. It is regular to have a slight decrease in memory, for example, slower review of data, however intellectual decrease that effects every day life isn't a typical piece of the maturing process Dementia is characterized as the noteworthy loss of intellectual capacities sufficiently serious to meddle with social functioning.

It can come about because of different maladies that reason harm to cerebrum cells. There are a wide range of sorts of dementia, each with its own motivation and side effects.

For illustration, vascular dementia is caused by diminished blood stream to a piece of the mind, as caused by a stroke.

Dementia may likewise be available in patients with Parkinson's sickness and hydrocephalus. Advertisement is the most well known type of dementia, caused by the development of beta amyloid plaques in the brain1

Disease Presentation

AD advances slowly and can keep going for a considerable length of time. There are three fundamental phases of the malady, each with its own difficulties and side effects. By distinguishing the present phase of the infection, doctors can anticipate what manifestations can be normal later on and conceivable. Courses of treatment. Each case of AD presents with a different group of symptoms, varying in severity.

Early-Stage Alzheimer’s disease

This mild stage, which usually lasts 2 to 4 years, is often when the disease is first diagnosed. In this stage, family and friends may begin to realize that there has been a decline in the patient’s cognitive ability. Common symptoms at this stage include2, 7: Difficulty retaining new information. Difficulty with problem solving or decision-making. Patients may start to have trouble managing finances or other instrumental activities of daily living. Personality changes. The person may begin to withdraw socially or show lack of motivation. Difficulty expressing thoughts. Misplacing belongings or getting lost. The patient may have difficulty navigating in familiar surroundings.

Moderate Alzheimer’s disease

Lasting 2 to 10 years, this is longest stage of the AD disease. Patients often experience increased amount of difficulty with memory and may need help with activities of daily living. Symptoms frequently reported during this stage include. Increasingly poor judgment and confusion.

The patient may begin to confuse family members, lose orientation to time and place, and may begin wandering, making it unsafe for them to be left alone at home. Difficulty completing complex tasks, including many of the instrumental activities of daily living, such as managing finances, grocery shopping, planning, and organization. Greater memory loss. Patients may begin to forget details of their personal history. Significant personality changes. The person may become withdrawn from social interactions and develop unusually high suspicions of caregivers.

Severe Alzheimer’s Disease

In this final stage of the disease, cognitive capacity continues to decline and physical ability is severely impacted. This stage can last between 1 and 3 years.

Due to the family’s decreasing ability to care for the patient, this stage often results in nursing home or other long-term care facility placement. Common symptoms appearing in this stage include.

Loss of ability to communicate. The patient may still speak short phrases, but are unable to carry on a coherent conversation.

Reliance on others for personal care, such as eating, bathing, dressing, and toileting. Many patients become incontinent. Inability to function physically.

The person may be unable to walk or sit independently. Muscles may become rigid and swallowing can eventually be impaired.

Changes in the Brain

AD causes two distinct deformities in the brain, neurofibrillary tangles and senile

Plaques. The neurofibrillary tangles are found in the cytoplasm of neurons in the entorhinal

Cortex. There are two different kinds of plaques, neuritic and diffuse. Neuritic plaques are

Spherical structures that contain neurites, which are surrounded by an abnormal protein known as amyloid

. Diffuse plaques lack neurites and have an amorphous appearance. Both types of

Plaques are found in the neocortex of the brain.

As the number of plaques and tangles increases, healthy neurons begin to function less

Effectively. The neurons gradually lose their ability to communicate and consequently die,

Resulting in an overall shrinkage of brain tissue. Neuron death, particularly in the hippocampus,

Restricts the patient’s ability to form new memories.

Death from Alzheimer’s disease

Deaths from Alzheimer’s disease as the underlying cause have increased dramatically

Since 1991. The changes in the brain caused by AD are not usually the primary cause of death.

AD often causes complications, such as immobility and trouble swallowing. These can lead to

Malnutrition and increased risk of pneumonia, resulting in death in these patients1


Risk Factors


The single greatest risk factor for developing Alzheimer’s disease is age. Most cases of

AD are seen in older adults, ages 65 years or above. Between the ages of 65 and 74,

Approximately 5 percent of people have AD. For those over 85, the risk increases to 50 percent2.


In sporadic AD, there does not appear to be a genetic pattern of inheritance. A connection

Has been found between a gene called Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and the development of AD.

This gene is responsible for the protein that carries cholesterol in the blood. One form of the gene, ApoE4, has been shown to increase the chances of developing the disease. However, the ApoE2 form protects from the disease7, 8. In the cases occurring before age 65, a mutation of chromosomes may be to blame. This rare form of the disease is called Familial Alzheimer’s disease and it affects less than 10 percent of AD patients. It is caused by mutations on chromosomes 1, 14, and 21. If one chromosome mutation is inherited, the person will most likely develop AD. Offspring have a 50 percent risk9, 10.


There may be a connection between educational level and the risk of developing AD. People with fewer years of education seem to be at a higher risk. The exact cause for this relationship is unknown, but it is theorized that a higher education level leads to the formation of more synaptic connections in the brain. This creates a “synaptic reserve” in the brain, enabling patients to compensate for the loss of neurons as the disease progresses.

Coexisting Health Problems

There is a strong link between cardiovascular health and brain health. Having heart disease, high blood pressure or high cholesterol can increase the risk of developing AD. This is caused by damage to blood vessels in the brain, resulting in less blood flow and possible brain tissue death. Type 2 diabetes may also increase the risk for AD. Inefficiency of insulin to convert blood sugar to energy may cause higher levels of sugar in the brain, causing harm.

Diagnosis Diagnostic Criteria

The only method of diagnosing AD is a brain autopsy. However, mental and behavioral tests and physical examinations allow physicians to make an accurate diagnosis of AD in 90 percent of cases8. The criterion for diagnosing mental disorders can be found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association. In this manual, AD falls into the category of primary degenerative dementia. The diagnostic criterion includes dementia, insidious onset with progressive deterioration, and exclusion of all other types of dementia by history and physical examination.

A diagnosis of dementia includes a loss of intellectual abilities severe enough to interfere with social or occupational functioning, memory impairment, and a variety of other symptoms. The first step in finding a diagnosis is obtaining the patient history. During this time, the physician will determine what symptoms are present, when they began, and how they have progressed over time. The family history of illness is also pertinent. The physician will perform a physical examination, including blood tests and urinalysis.

This is done to rule out other potential causes of dementia, such as hormone imbalance, vitamin deficiency, and urinary tract infections. Brain scans may also be performed to exclude tumors, cerebrovascular accidents, traumatic brain injury, and infections. These scans are also helpful in identifying the characteristic tangles and plaques seen in AD.

Structural imaging scans, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT); provide information about the shape and volume of the brain. Functional imaging allows the physician to determine how effectively the brain cells are working. A functional MRI or positron emission tomography (PET) scan can be used. Neuropsychological examinations may be used to identify cognitive symptoms. The most

Commonly administered test is the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE). The physician begins by asking a series of questions designed to test the patient’s ability to recall and name a list of objects, perform simple arithmetic, and follow instructions. The patient is then assigned a score out of 30 possible points, with a score of less than 12 indicating severe dementia. AD patient’s cores typically decrease 2 to 4 points every year2. The physician may also use the Alzheimer’s disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) to

Measure the severity of the disease. The ADAS evaluates the patient’s orientation, memory,

Reasoning and language on a scale of 0 to 70. A higher score represents a higher level of

Cognitive impairment. The cognitive portion of the ADAS is sensitive to a wide array of

Symptoms and assesses many cognitive skills, including spoken language ability, recall of

Instructions, ability to find correct words, following commands, and orientation to surroundings

And time10

In addition to mental tests, the doctor may perform a neurological exam to assess the

Function of the patient’s brain and nervous system. This exam will test reflexes, coordination and Balance, sensation, muscle strength, speech, and eye function.

Detection Techniques

Neuroimaging is a perfect area of research for detecting AD. There are many brain

Imaging procedures that can be used to identify abnormalities in the brain, including PET, MRI,

And CT scans. Each scan involves a different technique and detects specific structures and

Abnormalities in the brain. Brain imaging is not currently a standard part of AD testing, however recent clinical studies have shown promising results that may change the procedure used by

Physicians to diagnose the disease.

Work Cited

2010 Alzheimer's disease Facts and Figures. Rep. Vol. 6. Chicago: Alzheimer's Association, 2010. Print. Alzheimer's and Dementia.

Alzheimer's Association 2010. Web. 01 Oct. 2010. .

Khachaturian, Zaven S., and Teresa S. Radebaugh. Alzheimer's Disease: Cause(s), Diagnosis, Treatment, and Care. Boca Raton: CRC, 1996. Print.

"The Discovery of Alzheimer’s disease » Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation." Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation. Web. 15 Oct. 2010.

October 19, 2022




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