About Motivation and Effect and Cognitive Factors in Motivation

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Extrinsic motivation occurs when an individual acts or engages in an activity solely to achieve certain outcomes or avoid negative consequences. Intrinsic motivation, on the other hand, comes when a person engages in an activity or behaves in a certain way because it rewards personally rather than for the desire of a specific reward (Cerasoli, Nicklin, & Ford, 2014). The primary distinction between these two types of motivation is the nature of their drivers. Extrinsic motivation is elicited by external rewards or the fear of punishment, whereas intrinsic motivation is elicited by a desire to achieve personal goals.  A perfect example of extrinsic motivation is when a person participates in a sporting activity to win a reward or to avoid negative consequences such as shame. Intrinsic motivation can be demonstrated by a person engaging in a sporting activity because it is enjoyable.

Question 2

The Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a vastly applied psychological theory of motivation comprising of human needs arranged on a five-tier model. These needs include physiological needs, self-actualization, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and safety needs. The physiological needs are basic and comprise of water, rest, warmth and food (Lester, 2013). Safety needs occupy the second tier and are also basic for example, security and safety. Belongingness and love and esteem needs are psychological needs that occupy the third and fourth tier respectively. Examples of belongingness and self-needs include friends and intimate relationships while esteem needs include the feeling of accomplishment and prestige. Self-actualization is a self-fulfillment need occupying the uppermost tier and refers to the desire that an individual has to achieve his or her full potential (Lester, 2013). A deficiency need can overpower a growth need when one chooses to rest (physiological need) rather than to continue working overtime to attain a given target (self-actualization need).

Question 3

I once took part in a poetry event when I was young. The competition was stiff, but I emerged as one of the best poets in my category. I was also named as one of the most promising artists at the time. My success in this event might have been attributed to several factors. I believe that the cause of my success was passion and ability. Therefore, the locus was internal. The source of this success is also stable since ability is permanent. I might have also succeeded in this event because of intense practice to boost my poetry skills. Therefore, this success was controllable.

Question 4

Motivational strategies have a key influence on an individual’s life and behavior. The TARGETS mnemonic refers to Tasks, Autonomy, Recognition, Grouping, Evaluation, Time, and Social Support. The grouping of students may impact their motivation either positively or negatively. A teacher would incorporate the aspect of grouping by ensuring that the students are assembled in academic clusters that would enhance knowledge transfer. For instance, weak students can be put in the same groups with the high performers to motivate them thereby impacting positively on their grades. A teacher can also use tasks as a motivational tool by providing difficult assignments and other activities to motivate the students to work harder. Lastly, recognition is a motivational strategy that can be employed by educators. Teachers can recognize any work that is done exemplarily thereby motivating the students to proceed with good work.


Cerasoli, C., Nicklin, J., & Ford, M. (2014). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: A 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4), 980-1008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0035661

Lester, D. (2013). Measuring Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Psychological Reports, 113(1), 15-17. http://doi/pdf/10.2466/02.20.PR0.113x16z1

April 26, 2023


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