Anatomy and Physiology of Skeletal and Muscular Organ Systems

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The skeletal and muscular organ systems together form the musculoskeletal system that provides the ability of humans to move. The relationship between the skeletal and muscular organ systems is that the muscular system muscle facilitates the movement of the bones found in the skeletal system (Fellows, 2012). In the human body, the skeletal organ system supports and provides structure for our bodies, thereby enabling us to stand upright. The muscular organ system equally plays a key role in the human body. It keeps the bones of our bodies in place besides facilitating their movement. The muscular system and the skeletal system work together as a framework for our bodies and provide pieces that permit for movement.

Anatomy of the Skeletal Organ System

The skeletal organ system is a body system that comprises of bones, ligaments, cartilages other tissues which perform pertinent functions for the body. However, the major parts of a skeletal organ system are the cartilages and bones. Broadly, the bones are classified into an axial skeleton – the bones found in the body`s midline such as the skull, vertebral column, and the ribcage – and the appendicular skeleton – bones located in the appendages like legs fingers, arms and toes. The cartilage comprises of the fibers which are fixed in the connective tissue (Lieber,  2010).

Physiology of Skeletal Organ System

In the human body, there are 206 bones that form about 200 joints with one another. The skeleton offers a framework for supporting tissues and organs of the body. The ligaments attach bones to one another while the tendons attach the bones to the muscles. Cartilage and joints permit for bending as well as shock absorbance.  Also, the skeletal organ system protects the internal organs of the body. For instance, the skull protects our brain, and the thorax protects the lungs and the heart. Likewise, the skeletal organ system performs the function of the movement of the body by providing the framework for the attachment of the muscles.

Disorders associated with Skeletal Organ Muscle

The skeletal organ muscle system can be affected by certain disorders including osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteoarthritis and dislocations and fractures. Osteoporosis is a common disease which is essentially characterized by lower mineral density within the bones, which makes the bones to be highly vulnerable to the fractures (Wortmann, 2000). Osteomalacia refers to the softening of the body`s bones due to deficiency of vitamin D. Osteoarthritis which is another disorder associated with skeletal organ system refers to the degenerative condition that is linked to wearing of protective cartilage caps that covers the bone-ends. The dislocations refer to the unnatural positioning of bones as a result of an injury while fractures refer to the breaking of bones as a result of injuries. All these disorders affect the lifespan of a person as they make them weak by lacking stability and support that their bodies require in order to function normally.

Anatomy of Muscular Organ System

The muscular organ system comprises three types of muscles, including the smooth, cardiac and skeletal muscles. The skeletal muscles are connected to two bones through a joint. Therefore, muscles serve the function of moving the parts of these bones closer to one another. The smooth or visceral muscle is usually found inside body organs like intestines, stomach and the blood vessels. Cardiac muscle is actually an involuntary muscle that constitutes the heart`s walls and establishes a steady, rhythmic pulsing which pumps blood throughout the body (Tieck, 2011).

Physiology of Muscular Organ System

The muscular organ system comprises of fascicles. The fascicles when stimulated contract in order to produce motion. The muscular organ system works under the control of the nervous system. The nervous system normally sends the nerve messages along the nerves and upon the skeletal muscle fiber receiving these signals, it either contracts or relaxes. If it is told to contract, then the resulting motion pulls on the bone, thereby creating body movements. However, if the skeletal is told to relax, it will make the body to stop any movements. Without the muscles, our bodies will not be able to properly function.

Disorders associated with Muscular System

Some of the disorders of the muscular organ system include sprain and strain, muscular dystrophy, and myasthenia gravis. In regard to sprain and strain, it is pertinent to understand that a sprain happens as a result of injuries to ligaments which lead to twisting of joints with no bone dislocation. This can cause mild to severe pain and inflammation. In cases where the pain is severe, it can result in the immobility of the affected part of the body. A strain, on the other hand, is less severe compared to a sprain. Muscular dystrophy refers to a genetic disease in which there is progressive muscle deterioration making them weak. It can make people unable to walk or make movements using their hands. Myasthenia gravis is the autoimmune disease in which antibodies affect nerves, thereby making them lose their capability of generating muscular contractions.


The muscular and skeletal organ systems are individual systems, however, they cannot function independently. For the two systems to properly function, their respective components such as cartilages, tendons, connective tissue, and ligaments must play their role. It should be understood that two bones are usually connected by the ligaments and one bone is attached by a tendon to a muscle (Muscolino, 2007).


The skeletal and muscular organ systems work together in providing stability, movement, and support to the body. The skeletal organ system of the body comprises of the cartilage, ligaments, and bones. Primarily, this organ system offers a framework or structure to the body in addition to providing shape. Alongside the muscular organ system, it assists in locomotion and movement of various body parts. The major disorders associated with the skeletal organ system include osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteoarthritis and dislocations, and fractures. These disorders affect the lifespan of individuals as they weaken their bodies. The muscular organ system, just like the skeletal organ system, is important in the movement of the various body parts as it controls the body movements. The muscular organ system comprises of smooth, cardiac and skeletal muscles, all of which perform different functions in facilitating movement. The sprain and strain, muscular dystrophy, and myasthenia gravis are disorders associated with a muscular organ system. These disorders in severe cases can render people immobile and this can affect their behaviors.


Fellows, J. (2012). Musculoskeletal system (important organ system). Delhi: Research World.

Lieber, R. (2010). Skeletal muscle structure, function, and plasticity. Philadelphia, Pa. [u.a.]: Wolters Kluwer Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Muscolino, J. E. (2007). Kinesiology: The skeletal system and muscle function. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby Elsevier.

Tieck, S. (2011). Muscular system. Edina, Minn: ABDO Pub. Company.

Wortmann, R. (2000). Diseases of the skeletal muscle. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

August 09, 2023




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