Big Five Personality Traits Theory

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The study of personality psychology uses the so-called Big Five model, a pattern in the study of personality, which examines the structure of the five broad elements or qualities of personality (personality dimensions). This is one of the most widely used theories for defining and measuring each person's personality. Research also suggests that these five personality traits are generally relatively stable in adulthood. One study of adults of working age showed that personality was generally stable over a four-year period and had minor changes as a result of adverse life events. With age, people become less extroverted, less neurotic, and less open to experience.

5 Personality Factors Analysis

The Big Five model, developed by Raymond Cattell, aims to describe personality, and psychologists have for many years proposed new evidence and approaches, different methodologies for analyzing these personality traits of each person. These fundamental elements have been found in the study of descriptions that some people have made about the personality of others, and are one of the most recognized models of human personality traits. Each trait consists of a set of more specific personality traits. For example, factor E (extraversion) includes specific qualities, such as the search for thrills, sociability, or optimism (Cherry). This model was apparently created to distinguish the most basic factors that form human personality. These essential, somewhat subconscious traits are responsible for the way people behave in society.

The five remarkable personality traits, also called the main factors, are usually given the following names, thus forming the abbreviation "OCEAN":
O: openness to new experiences.
C: Conscientiousness, or the ability to take responsibility.
E: extraversion.
A: kindness.
N: neuroticism or emotional instability (Cherry).

This “ocean” of human traits that serve as the basis for emotions then constitutes behavior when it comes to communicating with others. As such a process is inevitable, it is important to keep the Big Five in mind and act or respond accordingly. Every human being has the ability to experience every possible emotion throughout their lives, thus, the Big Five might be very useful to control those emotions or understand them in others.

Personality can be classified according to these 5 broad traits that have been described in the theory of the Big Five personality traits. The definition of each of them is as follows:

Factor O: Openness to experience.

Shows the extent to which the subject seeks to seek new personal experiences and creatively imagines its future. A person who is open to experiences has a smooth relationship with his imagination, appreciates art and aesthetics, and responds to his emotions and the feelings of others. They prefer to break the routine and tend to have knowledge of broad topics due to their intellectual curiosity. Its opposite is Proximity to experience (or change).

Factor C: Responsibility.

It is about how focused the subject is on his goals, in addition to how disciplined he is in achieving those goals. It can be said that a person with a high score in factor C is an organized person who is able to concentrate, who performs his tasks and who thinks before making decisions.

Factor E: Extraversion.

Determines the degree to which the subject is open to others and directs his energy to the social context. In other words, factor E explores how much the subject likes to be around other people, how much he likes to speak in front of others, and so on. Its opposite is isolation, which is characterized by restrained people, who are often described as unfriendly. They are usually independently independent, they prefer routine and family atmosphere.

Factor A: friendliness.

There is a degree of respect, tolerance, and peace in man. A good person is a person who trusts the honesty of other people, has a vocation to help and help those in need, is humble and simple, sensitive to the emotions and feelings of others.

Factor N: Emotional stability.

Determine how well a person copes with difficult life situations. Silent subjects who are not very prone to anger or rage tend to remain animated and manage their personal crises very well. Within personality traits, factor N is one that we find with a high score in moderate and calm people (Lim).

While none of the traits are directly evident, the emotions and reactions they form in other people are. By understanding the way they work for every person individually, it becomes much easier to form an approach. This, in turn, results in numerous ways to apply that knowledge to practice, from schooling to managing.


Theories of personality traits have long been trying to determine exactly how many personality traits exist. Previously, theories suggested a variety of possible traits, including Gordon Allport's 4,000 personality traits, 16 Raymond Cattell personality factors, and Hans Eisenko's three-factor theory. However, many researchers believed that Cattell's theory was too complex and that Eisenko's theory was too limited. The result is a five-factor theory that describes the basic traits that make up a person's building blocks.

Works Cited

Cherry, Kendra. "What Are The Big 5 Personality Traits?". Verywell Mind, 2021,

Lim, Annabelle G.Y. "The Big Five Personality Traits". Simply Psychology, 2020,

May 13, 2022
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