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ICoral reefs are important ecosystems that surround us, having undergone evolution for centuries to build the existing face of the planet. Corals are tiny animals that resemble plants that need sunshine and water to survive. Corals are crucial in establishing a foundation that entails complex and fruitful recycling and food chain system (Graham et al. 1). Corals can be hard or soft. Every polyp of a coral involves photosynthetic algae that are pivotal I providing nutrients and oxygen. Reefs are crucial such that they feed on solar energy and recycle almost every aspect within the ecosystem including significant amounts of toxic materials deposited in ocean bodies (Eddy et al. 1). Multidisciplinary experts use laboratory studies, field ocean research, underwater assessments, and sophisticated tools to understand the ecology of coral reefs. Therefore, coral reefs establish a complex system that is vital to the food chain processes. The following paper aims at discussing the various aspects that pertain the ecology of coral reefs and identifying some significant impact that the research topic has on personal understanding of ecological principles.
Environments within the Reef
Thermohaline structures of the water column, internal waves, tides, wave stress, and currents are the most significant hydro-physical factors that interact with the reef biota. Consequently, the named factors attribute to an influence on morphometry and growth of reefs and establishing unique structures and environments seen in coral reefs (Sorokin 34). Researchers note that studying environments within the reefs is a limited undertaking due to the variability and complexity of the factors mentioned above. One significant trait about coral reefs is that individual species exhibit unique morphology that makes them establish peculiar relationships with their physical environment. Sorokin (36) explained that most of the reef systems are located in regions with extreme and permanent wave stress emanating from the action of trade winds.
Coral Reefs as Habitats
Coral reefs offer habitats to a vast array of organisms that occupy different strata within the ecological food web. Vertebrates and invertebrates are the primary groups of animals that inhabit the coral reefs. Examples of the microorganisms include bacteria, benthic algae, and phytoplankton that act as a source of food for other animals in the coral reef ecosystem (Sorokin 73). The water columns on the coral reefs support different species of fish, marine mammal species, and other large invertebrates. Coral reefs undergo small-scale erosion initiated by organisms such as sea urchins, fungi, and bacteria, that bore into the substrate of the reef (Sale 43).
Types of Coral Reefs
There are four classes of coral reefs, that is, atolls, patch, barrier, and fringing reefs (Sheppard et al. 13). Atolls are located in the middle of the sea and characterized by rings that create protected lagoons. Patch reefs often grow from open bottoms of continental shelves or island platform, and they are often isolated, small, and possess the inability to reach the surface of the water. Barrier reefs grow parallel to the coastline are they are characterized by lagoons of significant depth separating them, and they hinder navigation by their ability to reach the water surface (Graham et al. 2). Fringing reefs also grow near the coastlines, and shallow and narrow lagoons separate them from the shore.
Biodiversity of Coral Reefs
The ecology of coral reefs entails studies on the existing relationships between the organisms living in the coral reefs and how they interact with both the human and natural environment. Coraline algae and corals combine to form a hard structure which integrally links all kinds of sea creatures to one another. Understanding the ecology of coral reefs requires biological, environmental, and physical information pertinent to the structures. Coral reefs are present around the world and tend to exhibit similar animals and plants, that is, there is the existence of same genera and families with notable differences in the species that make the reefs (Sorokin 215). Scientists explain that the ecology of coral reefs is the most complicated/complex in studying the ecosystem of marine life.
The aspect of biodiversity as the primary characteristic of coral reefs attribute to the ecological complexity. Coral reefs entail many organisms that have an established ecological interaction emergent from mutualistic and balanced relationships that promote the sustainability among species. Understanding coral reefs biodiversity is essential in elucidating the interactions between the organisms and their environment (Bonin et al. 4). Ecologists explain that biodiversity is a survival trait that enables reefs to maintain adequate responses to the stable but often disturbed environment.
Coexistence and Competition between Different Species of Sea Creatures on the Reefs
The environmental dynamics promote the accumulation of different species (competitive) over time (Eddy et al. 2). The essence of coexistence and competition is that it is essential to maintaining a healthy aquatic ecosystem. Bonin et al. (3) defined competition in the context of marine ecology as the process in which different coral species interact with one another as they acquire shared requirement for a resource whose supply is limited. Subsequently, the process results in reduced fitness of at least one of the species to survive in the environment. Bonin et al. continue to explain that different sea creatures on the reefs utilize the mechanism of resource portioning to coexist as they compete for similar resources (24). Eddy et al. (4) noted that ocean acidification and climate change have been pivotal in changing the structure, ecological processes, and environments of marine species. Reef organisms exhibit a somewhat considerable sensitivity to low PH and high temperatures that occur as a consequence of the names stressors. Therefore, ocean deterioration due to climate changes results in the reduced competitive ability of species due to changes in the availability of resources and habitat (Bonin et al. 26).
Life History and Marine Biology of Coral Reef Species
The process of coral reef formation begins when coral larvae swim freely and attach themselves to hard surfaces at the edges of continents or islands or in submerged rocks and begin their life cycle of growth. Tiny and soft-bodied organisms called coral polyps begin to secrete hard limestone (calcium carbonate) skeletons called calicle from beneath their skins to form the structure of the coral reefs (Camp et al. 1). The hard skeletons are pivotal to the survival of coral animals by offering protection from other predators and provide a substrate for attaching new coral polyps. The algae that live in the coral tissues are important in providing the energy required for the growth of skeletons.
The growth of coral reefs is influenced by different factors such as the availability of food, turbulence, salinity, and temperature of the water. However, coral reefs thrive significantly in warm, clear, and shallow water that facilitates maximum access to sunlight that filters through the symbiotic algae present. Another aspect of growth is that coral reefs rely on salt water to survive and they exhibit poor development in coastal areas with water runoffs and river openings (estuaries). Therefore, coral reefs are definable by their unprecedented growth characterized by their development in nutrient-deficient environments but maintain high levels of production due to their optimal ability to use the nutrients obtained (Camp et al. 2; Sorokin 326).
Patterns of Movement of Coral Reef Species
Knowledge of the above elucidates how they connect with other habitats and ecosystems. Green et al. (1217) explain extensively the types of movement patterns of coastal pelagic fish species, juvenile, and adult coral reef species. The three major patterns identified include habitat ontogenetic shifts, spawning migrations, and home ranges. Ontogenetic shifts are patterns whereby the coral reef species undergo changes in different types of habitats such as the seagrasses and mangroves before moving to the coral reefs as their adulthood habitat. Spawning migrations define the process in which coral reef species move from the range of their normal habitat to a spawning site where they form aggregations. Home range movement patterns are defined by situations where the coral reef species engages in most of its activities such as resting and foraging in a specific area within the ecosystem. Therefore, movement patterns exhibited by the coral reef species play a significant role in linking the demographics of local populations and connectivity (Green et al. 1215).
The significance of Coral Reefs to Ocean Health
Understanding the importance of coral reefs to man, earth, and the ocean is crucial because it helps in providing an insight into the different interactions that exist between the three. Coral reefs are vital in many aspects apart from exhibiting the most diverse ecosystems in the planet. Coral reefs help with recycling of nutrients, fixing nitrogen and carbon, maintain marine food chains, provide habitat for other marine lives, filter pollutants from the ocean water, and protect the coastlines from damage by tropical storms and action of waves (Sorokin 320).
Threats Affecting Coral Reefs
There are many factors that threaten the existence of coral reefs. The aspects of global warming, climate change, anthropogenic factors, and natural disturbances such as population dynamics of reef species, hurricanes, short-term temperature extremes, and unusually low tides are a significant threat to these marine species. The existence of coral reefs within the ecosystem is measurable by their ability to withstand the above factors (Sheppard et al. 44). One important trait of coral reefs is that they exhibit specific capability and characteristics that enable them to cope with the imminent threats and recover in cases of catastrophic events.
Impact of Research Topic to the Understanding of Ecological Principles
Learning about the ecology of coral reefs has contributed significantly to the understanding of ecological principles. First, conservation of diverse marine species relies on the conservation of coral reef habitats that house a substantial number of organisms. Secondly, understanding the movement patterns among coral reef species have attributed to an insight of the ways these species maintain genetic diversity. Thirdly, the research topic has provided an understanding of the principle that climate influences all the ecosystems--marine, freshwater, and terrestrial. Finally, coral reef ecology impacts the knowledge on the effect of disturbances on shaping the characteristics of the ecosystems.
Coral reefs are vital in numerous aspects such as maintaining oceanic health and regulating the food chain. Environments within the coral reefs are complex and variable due to different hydro-physical factors that prevail. The influences on the reef environments significantly affect the existence of animals that rely on them as habitats. Coral reefs emerge from coral larvae than consists of polyps that secrete limestone that is instrumental in the formation of the hard structure. Coral reefs diversify their demographics by exhibiting different patterns of movement. Markedly, coral species are pivotal in maintaining ocean health. However, factors such as climate change and natural disturbances threaten the existence of coral reefs. The research topic has been pivotal in the understanding of the diverse ecological principles.
Bonin, Mary C., et al. “The Prevalence and Importance of Competition among Coral Reef Fishes.” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 2015, pp. 169–90.
Camp, Emma F., et al. “The Future of Coral Reefs Subject to Rapid Climate Change: Lessons from Natural Extreme Environments.” Frontiers in Marine Science, 2018.
Eddy, Tyler D., et al. “Historical Baselines of Coral Cover on Tropical Reefs as Estimated by Expert Opinion.” PeerJ, Jan. 2018.
Graham, Nicholas A. J., et al. “Coral Reef Community Composition in the Context of Disturbance History on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.” PLOS ONE, Jul. 2014, p. e101204.
Green, Alison L., et al. “Larval Dispersal and Movement Patterns of Coral Reef Fishes, and Implications for Marine Reserve Network Design.” Biological Reviews, Nov. 2015, pp. 1215–47.
Sale, Peter F. The Ecology of Fishes on Coral Reefs. Elsevier, 2013.
Sheppard, Charles R. C., et al. The Biology of Coral Reefs. Oxford University Press, 2018.
Sorokin, Yuri I. Coral Reef Ecology. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.
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