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Notably, every decade seems to come with its technological buzzword; the personal computers were introduced in the 1980s, in the 1990s, there was the introduction of the world wide web as well as the internet, the 2000s brought with it the social media as well as the smartphones while the current decade introduced the machine learning as well as the Artificial Intelligence (Shah 88). However, in as much as the Artificial Intelligence is one of the most popular topics, it is approximately 67years old since its birth in 1950 and the hype cycle it went through in both 1956 and 1982. The idea of Artificial Intelligence was initially sparked by Alan Turing's curiosity about whether a machine can be able to imitate human intelligence in 1950 (Shah 97). Turing formed a game wherein a computer, a human, as well as another human interrogator, were in different rooms. The interrogator had the goal of distinguishing the computer from the human through the typewritten answers they gave to the questions asked by the interrogator (Hutson 27). The computer, on the other hand, had the goal of convincing the interrogator that it was the human.
Furthermore, another person named Marvin Minsky in 1951 was inspired by the neuroscience research that indicated the brain to be having an electrical network of neurons that fire with an all-or-nothing pulse. The graduate student then attempted to model a rat's behavior computationally. After collaborating with Dean Edmonds, a physics student, they birthed first neural network machine that was primitive and known as Stochastic Neural Analogy Reinforcement Computer, which was successful in the modeling of a rat's behavior in a small maze searching for food (Cath 45). In 1952 another advancement was made in the creation of intelligent machine when Arthur Samuel came up with a Checkers-playing program, which was the first self-learning program in the world. Later, Simon, Newell as well as Shaw built Logic Theorist in 1955 that was also the first program that mimicked the skills of problem-solving of a human and went as far as proving 38 out of the first 52 theorems in the Russell and Whitehead's Principia Mathematica (Omohundro 42).
The young professor, John McCarthy who got his inspirations from the past successes organized a conference in the year 1956 with the aim of gathering twenty pioneering researchers and explore the ways of making a machine that could have the capability of reasoning like a man, was capable of self-improvement, abstract thought as well as problem-solving. The term Artificial Intelligence was first coined in his proposal in the 1955 and the conference in question, Artificial Intelligence gained its mission, hype as well as vision (Tripathi 22).
Markedly, Artificial Intelligence is today an essential field in human life that ought to be embraced and even improved to more perfection. Firstly, the Artificial Intelligence minimizes the chances of error and results in the achievement of both accuracy as well as greater precision. Further, Artificial Intelligence can be applied in the exploration space such as intelligent robots. These machines can endure the various hostile environment of space that is interplanetary. They may adopt such that there is no interference with either their functioning or their physical ate by the planetary atmosphere. Artificial Intelligence can help in efficiently carrying out the various time-consuming as well as repetitive tasks (Tripathi 34). Besides, the robots may be programmed to access the Earth's nadirs and dig up fuels, help in the mining processes, and can also be of the essence in the deep ocean explorations. Artificial Intelligence can also be essential in replacing human beings in specific laborious tasks that involve painstaking activities, which the programmed machines are capable of shouldering effectively.
Pointedly, the Artificial Intelligence can also help in rectifying the human errors in the processes of carrying out the activities, which is perfectly exemplified in the ability of smartphones to correct the human error in spelling (Omohundro 58). Besides, the apps such as Siri that act as personal assistants, maps as well as the GPS applications are examples of Artificial Intelligence employed and how helpful it is in human life. Also, the use of Artificial Intelligence has proved significant in the fraud detection in the systems that are smart-card based; hence, it can be helpful in the financial institutions as well as banks in the organization as well as management of records and protection against fraud (Cath 63). Therefore, the Artificial Intelligence is so much help not only in the reduction of human error but also in time-saving and provision of efficient work besides reaching far extend that human beings could only dream of achieving. These contributions the field makes to the life of human beings makes it inevitable to be embraced.
Conversely, as it is often said that everything with a benefit must have a disadvantage, there have been arguments on the potential danger of Artificial Intelligence. Firstly, it is indicated that there is grave danger in losing the moral as well as ethical values when the Artificial Intelligence is employed (Hutson 38). Further, it is also disadvantageous because of the cost that is incurred in the repair as well as maintenance of the Artificial Intelligence. Another adverse effect caused by the Artificial Intelligence is lack of effectiveness in the storage of data by the machines, retrieval, as well as access in as much as they have the space to store enormous amounts of data.
The Artificial Intelligence is also seen to be disadvantageous because it may be used by criminals in the exploitation of vulnerable individuals as well as organizations such as hackers (Tripathi 40). Besides, there are also fears that the execution of the Artificial Intelligence may go wrong with the examples of the experimental Artificial Intelligence chatbot, Tay that was launched by Microsoft on Twitter with the intentions of Tay mimicking the millennial female’s language patterns by the use of Natural Language Understanding as well as the adaptive algorithms. However, the experiment failed after Toy’s data store was fed with insults, racism as well as sexism by the twitter trolls. Therefore, the fact that the smartness of Artificial Intelligence goes to the extent of the kind of data fed to it makes it vulnerable and corruptible, which may cost human beings so much.
In as much as there are risks as well as disadvantages that are genuinely attached to the execution of Artificial Intelligence, the positive impacts of the same are far much of significance to humanity. For instance, its use in the medical sector may help in saving a lot of lives such as through the improvement of the diagnosis of cancer as well as its management, diagnostic tools for the deadly birth asphyxia, as well as other patient management tools (Omohundro 73). Further, its aforementioned capabilities in the enhancement of throughput as well as efficiency, freeing up of human being from the tedious tasks to concentrate on their best fields, and the fact that it strengthens economy through the combination of both machines and human beings in the workforce that will result into maximum production of both goods and services.
The other importance of Artificial Intelligence that include the enhancement of human lifestyle, the functions in Telemedicine that help improve as well as save lives, the increase in automation that help carry out tasks that otherwise would take much of human labor or could be utterly impossible, its elevation of mankind's conditions regarding problem solving, solution of various complex social issues such as biases, and it creation of extension as well as expansion in creativity makes it inevitable for the humankind to execute the Artificial Intelligence.
Cath, Corinne J.N. "Artificial Intelligence and the 'Good Society': The US, EU, and UK Approach." SSRN Electronic Journal, 2016. Elsevier BV, doi:10.2139/ssrn.2906249.
Hutson, Matthew. "Bad Bots Do Good: Random Artificial Intelligence Helps People Coordinate." Science, 2017. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), doi:10.1126/science.aal1204.
Omohundro, Steve. "Autonomous Technology And The Greater Human Good." Journal Of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, vol 26, no. 3, 2014, pp. 303-315. Informa UK Limited, doi:10.1080/0952813x.2014.895111.
Shah. "Third International Conference On Artificial Intelligence And Education". Artificial Intelligence, vol 31, no. 1, 2016, p. 117. Elsevier BV, doi:10.1016/0004-3702(87)90086-5.
Tripathi, Anurag. "Artificial Intelligence: Its Pros And Cons". Indian Science Cruiser, vol 31, no. 1, 2017, p. 47. Institute Of Science, Education And Culture, Kolkata, doi:10.24906/isc/2017/v31/i1/155716.
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