Early Childhood Development

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The world of child development during the early years is crucial, and it requires good planning to ensure the holistic development of a child. In early childhood building a child’s holistic development, one has to choose a healthy and safe environment to stimulates and encourage physical, cognitive and social-emotional development of a child (Cole et al., 130). Therefore a well-arranged environment should be provided to encourage the development of a child through learning and play.

Cognitive development

1. Follow the leader method

 0- 6 months - Clap, open and close hands or wave. The baby will learn to respond by doing so (Cole et al., 130).

 6 – 12 months – clap, tap any object or wave, start with what the baby is doing. Pay attention to the reaction and the child will learn to do it back and forth.

1-2 years – wave to the child when leaving. He then knows that in leaving one.

2-3 years- Clapping in the classroom or when one does something good. The child will learn to associate the good with capping.

3-5 years – Readout numbers loud and let them say after, they will be able to say the numbers after if done regularly.

5-7 years – Allowing them to write after the example given. It helps them to enhance their ability to remember hence enhance their cognitive skills.     

2. Art

0-6 years – provide a colorfully painted materials in children’s room. The attractive colors promote creativity and prepare a child to explore.

6 – 12 months - Paintings in children’s room with attractive colors. It evokes curiosity and creativity and creates a good atmosphere.

1-2 years – Provide color pencils and papers, they are allowed to make drawings and color. Creativity is enhanced as they color and paint.

2-3 years – papers, color pencils, and paints are provided. They paint what they think and hence enhance their thinking capacity.

3- 5 years – Children provided with colors, paints, and papers. They are asked to paint and as they paint they enhance their thinking since they paint what they are thinking.

5-7 years – years they are also provided with colors, paints, and artwork to do. They use the artwork to express and enhance their thoughts.

Language Development

1. Talking to a child

0 - 6 years – No materials required. Interacting with a child will help him learn to make a sound before being able to produce words. Encourage them to make words like ‘MA” (Whitehurst and Christopher 850).

6-12 years – Interacting with a child help them learn listening skills and develop language as they get to learn new vocabularies.

1-2 years – Here the child can make up a word and talk with them will enhance their language development.

2-3 years - the child here a fully developed language and can make a sentence. Stories should be used to enhance language development. Retelling the story help them develop their speech.

3-5 years – Stories and reading of storybooks are used. Children can form more complex sentences. They can learn new vocabularies and pronunciation.

5-7 years – Talking with them and allowing them to say stories to help them learn different words from the stories. All children at this age can tell a story or engage in a conversation.

2. Listening

0-6 months- sing and talk to the child and watch the facial expression he or she makes. Children react differently to different pitches.

6-12 months – to know how to assist children in language development, one should listen on the words which the child tries to produce before assisting him.

1-2 years- children here can communicate and to be able to assist in language development on should listen and reply appropriately to the child. Through the interaction, the child develops language.

2-3 years- listening to them during interaction and answering them appropriately.

3-5 years – Ask a child a story and listen to him. This gives them confidence as they deliver their speech correctly.

5-7 years – they are capable of narrating a story, and they can read. All they need is someone to listen and can be given time to retell the story

Social, Emotional Development

1. Music

0-6 months – lullabies songs are good at this stage, play toys can be used to produce any sound as the kid hears the song. This develop emotions and put the babies to sleep or consoling mode (Cochran and Jane 611).

6-12 months – toys can also be used as equipment to produce music, the music produced will enhance listening skills of the baby and also build an emotional feeling which helps the baby and feels that someone is around and he or she is safe.

1-2 years – Here the baby has improved listening skills and can comprehend many sounds well, the material used can be toys or any other material that produce good music. It brings back child’s attention and increases concentration if the song is good.

2-3 years - Nice songs sung to children help creates a good mood for the children and makes learning things from environment quite easier

3-5 year – good songs and musical instruments can be introduced to children. They should be allowed to perform, shake bottles to produce sounds. Songs help the child to develop with other socially and have good emotions which assist in learning.

3- 5 years – Here material required are instrumental music that produces good music when played, enjoyable music can be sung to them. Through songs, children learn to deal with the situation and handle challenges he or she faces.

2. Disappearing Cheerio

0-6 months - Disappearing Cheerio – the material needed in the game are cheerios and Opaque plastic cups. Cups used should be of different colors and cheerio be placed under a cup. Attention and memory development are enhanced through these learning activities (Cochran and Jane 611).

6-12 months – The same materials are required, Cheerio plastic, the game can be played by more than one kid. It assists the child to socialize with others and develop good emotions.

1-2 years – Cheerio and Opaque plastic cups are required, more than one child can play the game. It assists the child to socialize well with others and develop good emotions.

2-3 years – Cheerio cups needed, more than one child can play the game. It enhances the development of social skills through socializing with other kids.

3-5 years – cheerio and opaque plastics needed they are can play in a group of five. Through socializing they develop social and emotional skills.

5-7 years- here the children can play the game alone provide with cheerio cups. They can be in groups of five, and as they interact through play, they develop social skills.

Physical Development

1. Peekaboo

0-6 years – materials needed are small toys. This involves hiding a toy and check whether the baby notice that is disappearing. Often he or she follows with eyes Whitehurst and Christopher 850).

6-12 months- Small toys or books are needed to play the game. One can hide the book; the child will then try to find and go for the hidden toy or book.

1-2 years - Toys are also applicable during this age, and it helps to identify whether the children can move to find out a hidden thing which has some part seen.

2-3 years – toys, books, and blanket are the materials which are used. An adult can engage more than two children in the game. It helps the child to exercise during movement hence develop motor skills.

3-5 years – Bigger toys are used here, and they are hidden in a place not easily found, and the children are required to move around to look for the toy. Sometimes they need to climb a place or move objects to find it.

5-7 years- Materials used are bigger toys. The favorite’s toys are hidden, and they are required to find them.

2. Climbing

O-6 months- during these months baby can make some movement, small pillows can be used to introduce the baby to make more movements. As they throw their legs and hands over something, this helps them develop physically.

6-12 – months – they can crawl and walk in support of something. Pillows can be thrown on the flow for them to climb hence develop motor skills.

1-2 years - A child can walk and can climb on the table and chairs in the house. Their muscles develop and become stronger.

2-3 years – The child is introduced to climb more steep objects due to their hyperactivity, to strengthen their motor skills.

3-5 years – Provide safe climbing ladders for them to rise in the playground. As they climb up and get down their muscles develop.

5-7 years – More steep ladders are provided, most of the children at this age can do this, and their muscle developed leading to good physical development.

Work Cited

Cole, Pamela M., Sarah E. Martin, and Tracy A. Dennis. "Emotion regulation as a scientific         construct: Methodological challenges and directions for child development research."          Child development 75.2 (2004): 317-333.

Cochran, Moncrieff M., and Jane Anthony Brassard. "Child development and personal social   networks." Child development (1979): 601-616.

Whitehurst, Graver J., and Christopher J. Lonigan. "Child development and emergent literacy."         Child development 69.3 (1998): 848-872.

August 14, 2023
Category:

Psychology

Subject area:

Development

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1499

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