Ebola Zaire Epidemic

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In August 1976, several patients having a hemorrhagic fever syndrome presented themselves to the Yambuku mission and referral hospital of Congo (Zaire) (Gatherer, 2014). The Congolese medical staffs immediately responded to the patients and governed out the possible temporary diagnosis of yellow fever, malaria, or the occurrence of typhoid.as a result, the expert assistance was ordered by the administration from various nations in September through the minister of health and nutritional affairs. As a result, the national and international commission for control and investigation of the severe Ebola virus and hemorrhagic fever in DRC delivered their research study in 1978.consequently on August 1976 the headmaster of a yambuku mission learning center returned from the driving excursion to Zaire (Ro et al., 2017).Along the journey, the headmaster purchased different types of food. However, he started developing fever and chills and was admitted to the outpatient clinic of the yambuku mission hospital with malaria.

 With the recent severe epidemics of the Ebola infection disorder in Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leon, there is a continuous focus on the lessons from the initial outbreak. After treatment, the fever diminished but unfortunately returned after one week with an adverse headache, abdominal complaints, the muscle pain, intestinal bleeding, and nausea. According to Breman et al.(2016), the patient later died in September as a result of the hemorrhagic syndromes of the unknown cause. Consequently, in the same month of August 1976, a male adult was hospitalized at YMH (Yakumbu Mission Hospital) with dysentery, fever, and epistaxis. The patient remained in the hospital for three days and later left without active diagnosis follow-up. Moreover, Ro et al.(2017) elaborate that many patients attending the YMH with different conditions such as pregnancy were offered vitamins and various medications through injections. The injections served as routine practices favored mainly by the medical staffs and patients.

The metal needles and glass syringes used within the outpatient departments, the inpatient medicinal awards, village, and the parental outreach clinics were employed repeatedly and continuously without sterilization. Moreover, these devices were occasionally rinsed. As a result, during the early September, 1976 many dozen patients who had obtained the injections at the Yakumbu Mission Statement developed the similar febrile and hemorrhagic syndromes and died unfortunately after one week (Gatherer, 2014). As a result, the individuals developed unknown virus known as the Ebola virus. As a result, the disease was described by Ngoy Mushola as the chief medical officer within the region.

The disorder infected over 320 individuals and causing over 219 deaths in Zaire hence given the name Ebola Zaire (Ro et al., 2017). As a result, the mortality rate was 89% with severe signs and symptoms. Based on the regular admission of patients at YMH the disease manifests fever, abdominal pain, internal bleeding, and headache. Moreover, the patients experience cases of sore throats and the maculopapular rash.as the disease continues spreading diarrhea, vomiting, and chest pains are experienced by the patient. Immediately the disorder becomes worse among the patients within the YMH. Bleeding occurs inside the patient’s body, ears, and nose.  Breman et al. (2016) elaborate that the Ebola virus transmission varies from patient to patient irrespective of age, color, or gender. However, Ro et al. (2017) argue that the individuals are not infectious for the disease until they start developing symptoms. The physical assessment of the disorder involves the occurrence of shock, the mucosal bleeding, the encephalopathy, the upper and lower respiratory tract systems. Based on the symptoms the patients used the RT-PCR and the virus antigen detections.

Gatherer (2014) argues that the YMH established the IV ribavirin that helps in managing the disease. However, Ebola Zaire is transmitted through using the dirty syringes and shots for malaria injection. Moreover, in DRC it is a common tradition in embracing the dead at the funerals. As a result, when the infected hosts of Ebola virus passed then their families and relatives would embrace the illness thereby resulting in the break out of the severe hemorrhagic fever. More significantly all the Ebola Zaire’s common and significant breakouts mainly occur in Africa and other parts of the world. However, Breman et al. (2016) argue that the risks factors for the disease include performing the animal study, traveling to Ebola Zaire prone areas, and providing medical care to people with Ebola. Additionally, all cases of Ebola Zaire result from the dense jungles, the infected primates, or the severe transmission through the hospital injections. As a result, Ebola Zaire originates from the unknown parts of nature the continuously spread through the human beings due to the unsanitary nursing afterward. Therefore, failure to conduct diagnosis of the disorder would lead to more attacks and mortality rates among the Congolese and other individuals across the world.

 According to Gatherer (2014), for adequate diagnosis of Ebola Zaire, there are potential mechanisms of treatment that have been conducted such as examining the blood samples of the patients, performing drug and immune therapies in the MHY. The medical professionals used electron microscopy in analyzing the specimens from various patients in the YMH. Moreover, Ro et al.(2017) elaborate that the professionals used the Tecnai spirit electron microscope that is equipped with multiple LaB6 filaments and operates at the acceleration voltage of 70-80kv.Additionally, for effective treatment of Ebola virus data was gathered about the possible transmission criteria from the hospital records and surveys on patients with whom the Ebola virus infection is suspected. Moreover, the data is obtained from the affected families, the public health administrators, and funeral attendants.as a result, collecting these data was mainly aimed at determining the spread and effects of the disorder among various populations in the Republic of Congo. As a result, many patients were diagnosed to suffer from Ebola Zaire infections due to the occurrence of micro-organisms.

 Therefore it is necessary to diagnose the disease. However, Gatherer (2014) argue that despite the compelling treatment strategies there is no available vaccine for Ebola Zaire, but there are two essential and potential vaccines that are under human security test to control the emergence of the symptoms since the medical professionals have no cure for the severe disease. As a result, Ebola virus is being controlled by the electrolytes and fluids, blood transfusions, and the blood pressure medication. Based on the urgent occurrence of the disease it is essential to focus on the prevention and diagnostic mechanisms of the disease.

In conclusion, Ebola Zaire (Ebola virus) is a severe disease that has caused several deaths in Zaire and other nations across the world. The disorder is characterized by the higher mortality rates and requires an immediate diagnosis to prevent the faster transmission. Moreover, it is necessary for the public to know the information about the Ebola virus so that it becomes easy to manage the symptoms. As a result, there must be constant research on the effective vaccines for the successful treatment of the disease.


Breman, J. G., Heymann, D. L., Lloyd, G., McCormick, J. B., Miatudila, M., Murphy, F. A., ... & van der Groen, G. (2016). Discovery and description of ebola zaire virus in 1976 and relevance to the West African epidemic during 2013–2016. The Journal of infectious diseases, 214(suppl_3), S93-S101.

Gatherer, D. (2014). The 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa. Journal of General Virology, 95(8), 1619-1624.

Ro, Y. T., Ticer, A., Carrion, R., & Patterson, J. L. (2017). Rapid detection and quantification of Ebola Zaire virus by one‐step real‐time quantitative reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction. Microbiology and immunology, 61(3-4), 130-137.

August 04, 2023

Health Science

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Infectious Disease

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