Green Chemistry Principles

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Chapter 1: Matters and Life

A matter is anything that has mass and occupies space; hence matter can be in three states which are solid, liquid or gases. Matter has two classifications. The first classification is a pure matter that contains elements and compounds. The second classification is a mixture that consists of homogeneous mixtures and heterogeneous mixtures. When one or two substances known as reactants react to form a different substance, the technique is known as a chemical reaction. Chemical elements are represented with symbols to allow easy notations, and they are presented in a periodic table.

Chapter 2: Measurement in Chemistry

Physical portions are measured in chemistry using precise measuring equipment. When chemical compounds are measured, they are noted in scientific figures for easy notations. When measuring some quantity, numbers can be rounded off depending on the decimal places required. In measurements of quantities, numbers can be converted from one unit to another. Some of the equipment used include thermometer that measures temperature and many other types of equipment of size used for various reasons.

Chapter 3: Atoms and the Periodic Table

The atomic theory states that "matter is made up of discrete units called atoms." On the other hand, atoms are the smallest particles that can take part in a chemical reaction. An atomic number of an element is defined as the number of protons that can be found within the nucleus of an atom. In a periodic table, a chemical element is arranged or sorted by their atomic numbers. In the periodic table, elements are organized into different groups depending on their characteristics. Elements are also organized according to their electron configuration.

Chapter 4: Ionic Compounds

Ionic compounds are defined as chemical compounds that are composed of ions which are held together by electrostatic forces known as ionic bonds. Ionic compounds have various characteristics including very high melting and boiling points, very high enthalpies of fusion compared to molecular compounds among other characteristics. The naming of ions is characterized with (+) indication gaining or (-) indication losing. Polyatomic ions are charged ions that contain two or more atoms that are joined by a covalent bond. Acids are substances that react with bases to form salt and water.

Chapter 5: Molecular Compounds

Molecular compounds are a mixture of two or more nonmetals. Nonmetal combines making a covalent bond which is the sharing of an electron pair between atoms of given elements. Coordinate covalent bond is formed when one element shares more than one electron to the other element during the process of bonding to form a stable bond. The molecular formula is used in expressing or specifying the actual number of atoms that each element has in a molecule. Polar covalent bond is defined as the covalent bond that is formed when bonding two molecules of the same element. On the other hand, polar molecules are molecules that are positive on one side and negative on the other side. Molecular compounds have various characteristics including the low melting and boiling points; they have a slow rate of reactions among other characteristics.

Chapter 6: Chemical Reactions: Classification and Mass Relationship

Chemical equations are used to demonstrate a representation of a chemical reaction. For a chemical equation to be complete, there is the balancing of the equation where the number of elements in reactants must be equal to the elements in the product side. The mole and Avogadro's constants are used in obtaining the measurement of a chemical reaction. Chemical reactions are classified in various classifications including synthesis reactions, where two or more reactants are combined to form one product. There is decomposition reaction where one reactant decomposes to form many products among many other classifications that exist between chemical reactions. Acids and bases react to form a neutral substance that is salt and water.


Fundamentals of General, Organic and Biological Chemistry, 7th Edition by McMurray, Ballantine, Hoeger and Peterson

October 26, 2021




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