Human Genome Project

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The Human Genome Project is currently one of the most widely debated subjects in genetics. The project was started in the United States of America in 1990, and it was estimated that it would take about 15 years to complete. However, due to technological advances, the project was completed in 2003, allowing it to extend to a global initiative involving numerous research facilities from Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and other countries (Timmerman, Strickland, & Züchner, 2014). The Human Genome Project is significantly associated with a variety of ethical ramifications which involves both negative and positive ones.

Starting with the positives ones, the project has significantly enabled the answering of various questions that regard the evolution. As a result of making comparisons between the DNA of the human being to that of the primate, whereby it may be very probable to be able to compose the evolution riddle. Usually, the probability of separating the evolution puzzle has resulted to a great argument from different religious institutions in different parts of the globe. Second, the Human Genome Project results to the improved techniques that are meant for the genetic screening for various infections before birth (Turnpenny & Ellard, 2016). This is possible due to the fact that the genomic archive came up with a genome project that comprised of genetic information for the fairly homogenous regions of the human genome, which helps ensure that there is no great deal when it comes to the variability that exists between individuals of these loci. As a result of evaluating the gamete DNA from blood relation, then it can be found out the possibility a kid might end up inheriting the genetic conditions from their parents (Brennan & Schrijver, 2016).

On the other hand, the Human Genome Project is associated with various ethical ramifications that are negative. First, it involves the discrimination that is based on the genotype which has greatly been raised. For instance, it may happen that employers obtain certain genetic information on the employees before they can hire them (Dove, et al., 2015) Then, if it happens that a particular worker is shown to be genetically vulnerable to the objectionable work force traits, then they may end up being discriminated. Similarly, the same thing applies to the insurance companies whereby they may gain access to the genetic information on a person hence end up discriminating against them by refusing to offer them coverage or even charging them higher insurance premiums unlike it is for the other people. Second is on the financial returns produced by the Human Genome Project whereby there have been numerous debates regarding who is supposed to obtain the fiscal benefits of the research considering the fact that the major research was initially being sponsored by the federal funds. As a result, this has seen many Americans having the feeling that since they are the people who have financed the research through their tax contribution, they should receive the information from the Human Genome Project freely hence bringing negative ethical issues.

Conclusion

The Human Genome Project is associated with a variety of ethical ramifications, which are both negative and positive. On the positive ramifications they comprise of answering questions regarding evolution and improved techniques meant for screening. On the negative effects comprise of discrimination on the basis of genotype and increased debates regarding the possession of the project.

References

Brennan, M. L., & Schrijver, I. (2016). Cystic fibrosis: a review of associated phenotypes, use of molecular diagnostic approaches, genetic characteristics, progress, and dilemmas. The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, 18(1), 3-1

Dove, E.S., Joly, Y., Tassé, A. M., in Genomics, P. P. P., Committee, S. P. I. S., Knoppers, B. M., ... & Ethics and Policy Committee. (2015). Genomic cloud computing: legal and ethical points to consider. European Journal of Human Genetics, 23(10), 1271.

Timmerman, V., Strickland, A.V., & Züchner, S. (2014). Genetics of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease within the frame of the human genome project success. Genes, 5(1), 13-32.

Turnpenny, P.D., & Ellard, S. (2016). Emery's Elements of Medical Genetics E-Book. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier Health Sciences.

July 29, 2022
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Science

Subcategory:

Biology Genetics

Subject area:

Human Human Genome Project

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3

Number of words

660

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