Journal Entries in Accounting against Fraud

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Mining journal entries in protection against fraud. Fraud detection is presently a severe constituent of financial reviews. The majority of inspection principles put more emphasis on periodical entries to prevent scams. This study discusses viewpoints of applying statistics removal mechanism in the journal entries. Fraud detection helps tidy up some undesired information in the journal entries to under important information for the company. This information is more connected to business records for the company or organization. The paper uses journal entries as well as data sets from 29 different organizations. When it comes to findings, the performance of the original numerals of the periodical buck amount was different from the digits, which were expected by the Benford’s law. However, concerning the last digits, it is anticipated that it have a uniform distribution. Nevertheless, the distribution was not uniform with the last digits of the journal entries in most of the organization's data. The paper will also make comparisons on the number of accounts with the last digits combinations. Four of the journal entries recorded a high occurrence of the recurrent three digits with a grouping that complicated a big group of accounts. It is to mean that the first four digits have the highest case of fraud detection in the journal entries. Data mining techniques aim at discovering other patterns and relationships within the recorded data sets. Finally, the paper intends to relate the understanding of the large dissimilar kinds of statistics removal methods with an idea of finding the seeded indicators in the journal admissions.


The discovery of deception in the economic declaration is known as the monetary report scheme. Fiscal account deception is now a dangerous constituent of the pecuniary proclamation check for the previous few decades. Most of the scams, in this case, involves the aspect of fraudulent journal entries. It may also include the managerial override or the controls that have utilized journal tickets in an electronic kind of secretarial info methods. The quarterly entries contain the best instance where fraud is detected in financial records (Bierstaker et al. 2006. P. 523). Automated auditory analysis is increasingly mandated by auditing standards both locally and internationally. There are many large bodies based on data mining in other domains. Auditing values demand that the examiners contemplate as deception in their monetary inspections. Statistics withdrawal has the possibility of improving the competence and efficacy of the auditors in most of their analysis of fraud detection and the journal entries. The essential components of journal entries need consideration in this paper (Gupta and Gill, 2012. P. 20). Pointing out and understanding some of the demographic patterns will be of great help in carrying out the project. Most professional auditors and audit community will be of help in the discharge of a greater portion of the project.

Background information

For the past decades, there has been an amplified importance on the discovery of deception as a component to the monetary announcement check. The AICPA’s Public Oversight Board’s Panel on Audit Effectiveness brought about a diversity of essential improvements to make sure of the lasting feasibility of the review sector (Gupta and Gill, 2012 .p. 49). Most significant frauds included manipulation of disclosure and financial statements in the late 19990. Moreover, another portion of the fraud scheme included a high-level journal entry, which was designed to ensure simple adjustments among classes of accounts. In so doing, the statement has to indicate an improvement position at the margin of the journal entry. For the reasons above, several changes have occurred for the last decades of the auditing standards. For the sustenance of the groundwork and the economic reports as well as supplementary records with extra revelations, the review customers tend to engage a mechanism that is more sophisticated. The mechanisms help in generating vast quantities if electronic evidence. Nevertheless, the process of finding out fraud detection within such data is so challenging. The process of employing and involving data sets in the process can improve the effectiveness and efficiency within the audit teams (Bierstaker et al. 2006. P. 529). The audit teams are great in conducting fraud related tasks within the journal entries of the company or organization. The current accounting details records transactions in the general ledgers in an automated manner. Entries however, have several hundreds of journal entries within an expected secretarial era. People obligating deception within the journal entries prefer to hide fraudulent transactions in other transactions. In some a case, the idea of detecting fraud becomes a challenging exercise due to the given factors in the data mining journal entries.

Financial statement frauds involving the journal entries

The financial statement with the involvement of journal entries is more of a test designed with an idea of supporting the auditor’s assessments of material misstatements. As much as the embezzlement of the possessions is significant, the process of ­detecting commercial announcement frauds is much superior and of much anxiety (Gupta and Gill, 2012. P. 70). The paper seeks to use periodical admissions to ease the deception and systems to find out the entrances with such effects. In the case of WorldCom financial statements, the cause of fraud was detection as the reallocation of operating expenses to the capital expenditures as well as other aspects of the scam. The frauds in most cases involve the provision of useful models to ensure the fraud is operational in the journal entries. Some of the cases arise from the changes from the expenditure books to the wealth spending versions. Furthermore, the act of fraud detection at WorldCom involved adjustments in the use of paper entries. The swindle complicated an unsuitable as well as a straightforward accounting reallocation. In some instances, some significant transfers made from an active-suspense expenditure account. Secondly, the fraud in the company also included secretarial conducts that planned to impact expose but not gratitude (Bierstaker et al. 2006. P. 531). The best example is the process of selling general as well as administrative expenses. Consequently, the adjustments did not change the profits for the company. However, it changed the allocation between the net profit and the gross profit disclosures. It was evident that the change in the disclosure was because of conclusion analysis present in the enterprise. Thirdly, most of the suspicious journal entries experience unwarrantable concealment. The adjustments included curved quantities that were understandable to most unplanned reviews. Furthermore. There were a big amount and quantity of unsuitable dubious accesses. The account indicated that most of the journal entries made without the support of the financial auditors. Despite the inappropriate journal entries, failures also were part of the main reason for fraud detection in the journal entries (Jans et al. 2011. P. 13355). The failures raised from the form of documentation as well as breaches in the normal internal controls. Consequently, the adjustments made in the journal entries were universally carried out at a corporate level. However, most of the people in the organization realized the adjustments and the fraud in the journal. In so doing, WorldCom was able to control the effects before it was beyond repair.

Heightening Risks from fraud

There is a great need of emphasizing the importance of fraud detection among the auditors in a company. Most researchers are working to find out the manner in which auditing must respond to heightened risk management. In the process of reviewing the response from the audience, the research team discovered that the high levels of fraud risks came from the failures of the audit team (Jans et al. 2011. P. 13357). In some cases, they are unable to place the entries in the journal at the required position. For example, the amount debited may be credited or vice versa. There is a need, therefore to incorporate the use of proposals in the working of journal entries (Bierstaker Bierstaker et al. 2006. P. 530). The proposals will help bring in new systems and techniques to eliminate the issue of fraud in the financial statements. Furthermore, proper selection of entries and adjustments is of great importance. It will help the auditors to find out and assess the risk of misstatements from the frauds. The auditors must pay much courtesy to non-standard entrances as well as extra alterations including the alliance admissions. There is need to find out the best selection process in dealing with fraud detection in the journal entries. The best formula is including assessments of risk in the fraud in the journal entries. The information technology and environmental features offer a better platform for the occurrence of fraud. Most of the journal entries are processed in the form and through better information systems and a better environment to offer spending growth.

Granularity forms an excellent platform for the processing of journal entries. The general ledger processes data, which have risen from a variety of transaction and the processing system. The information occurs at different levels of aggregation to ensure that the information is off from fraud. The use of non-standard journal entries is a mark for the financial statements. The non-standard periodical admissions are amongst a minor amount of seats (Gupta and Gill, 2012. P. 31). The data mining as an application can identify markers in the process of ensuring the datasets are free of fraud. The presence of adjustments in the journal entries is the main estimate for accounts. It acts as the focal point for the financial fraud and misstatements. The idea of journal entry have a supporting application and require assessments and inquiries. The auditors need to consider the risks, associated with the particularly given methods and the processes of generating the journal entries. Therefore, mining application is the most important way and directions of detecting fraud in the journal entries.


Bierstaker, J.L., Brody, R.G. and Pacini, C., 2006. Accountants' perceptions regarding fraud detection and prevention methods. Managerial Auditing Journal, 21(5), pp.520-535

Gupta, R. and Gill, N.S., 2012. A data mining framework for prevention and detection of financial statement fraud. International Journal of Computer Applications, 50(8).pp. 1-76.

Jans, M., Van Der Werf, J.M., Lybaert, N. and Vanhoof, K., 2011. A business process mining application for internal transaction fraud mitigation. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(10), pp.13351-13359.


October 12, 2022

Business Science



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Accounting Journal

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