Management in the 19th century Essay

286 views 3 pages ~ 679 words
Get a Custom Essay Writer Just For You!

Experts in this subject field are ready to write an original essay following your instructions to the dot!

Hire a Writer

Scientific Management in the 19th Century

During the 19th century, the idea of scientific management first arose. The administration of projects took on a lot of significance during this time. It is thought that this century is the century of administration. Since the 1880s, management has had a significant impact on how the world is today. Between the 1940s and 1980, managerialism of positive feeling became the norm. The self-declared managerial class rose to prominence in society. Following 1980, there was a time of specialization, waning moral aspirations, and submission to market forces. Enhancing management was essential for raising output. The growth of large companies, industrialized cities, factories, and railway network occurred during the last two decades of the 19th century. The concept of management was defined by the Taylor's Principles of Scientific Management which was published in 1911. The Concept of the Corporation was introduced in 1946 while the practice of management came into effect in 1954. The role of strategy and corporate management took a new clarity following the advancement of technology.

Labor in the 19th Century

In the 19th century, labor was characterized by many difficulties. The lives of industrial workers were not easy. They worked under harsh conditions for low wages. There was little that they could show for long hours of work. Women and children who worked for some industries encountered harsh conditions than men. Women and children used to work for long hours until the enactment of Massachusetts legislation in 1874 which limited the working hours to 10 hours per day. Industrial wages were adversely affected by periodic economic crises. The economic crises also contributed to increased levels of unemployment. The demand for skilled labor decreased due to technological improvement. The cases of job-related fatality were high in the United States. The earnings of most industrial workers were not adequate to sustain the minimum deemed for a decent life. Between 1870 and 1900, the number of children in the workforce doubled. Labor movements emerged during the 19th century with the aim of protecting the interest of workers. The main aims of organized labor unions were to fight for safe working conditions, better wages, and reasonable working hours. Stopping child labor, provision of health benefits and aid to injured or retired workers were among the top priorities of labor movements during the 19th century.

The Pullman and Homestead Strikes

The Pullman strike is considered to be one of the most important events in the history of labor. The Pullman strike took place in 1894 outside the Chicago Pullman factory. The strike quickly grew into a national strike involving railroad workers, the federal government, and the Pullman Company. The Pullman strike was triggered by the unfavorable working condition and low wages that the company gave its workers. There was a general economic downturn in 1894. As a result, Pullman decreased the wages of its workers without a proportionate reduction of rents and goods sold in the stores owned by the company. The strike started in May and became a nationwide railroad strike within a month. The strike ended in July with little success since the federal government sided with the employers.

Homestead strike took place at the Carnegie steel company in 1892. A gun battle ensued between the steelworkers and a group of men who were hired by the steel company to put an end to the strike. The strike was not successful and the steelworkers lost. The strike took five days after which the steel company was reopened. 6000 state militiamen were hired to break the strike and reopen the plant. The union of steelworkers lost has the state government sided with the owners of the plant. The Pullman and Homestead cases show that the government often sided with the management during labor disputes in the 19th century. The workers were right to demand better pay and working conditions, but the management and the government were wrong in violating the rights of workers and subjecting them to poverty.


Corbett, P. Scott, Volker Janseen, John Lund, Todd Pfannestiel, Paul Vickery, and Sylvie

Waskiewicz. "US History OpenStax." 2016.

Stiles, T. J. "Robber Barons or Captains of Industry?." History Now 2014.

July 07, 2023

Business History

Number of pages


Number of words




Writer #



Expertise World History
Verified writer

I enjoyed every bit of working with Krypto for three business tasks that I needed to complete. Zero plagiarism and great sources that are always fresh. My professor loves the job! Recommended if you need to keep things unique!

Hire Writer

This sample could have been used by your fellow student... Get your own unique essay on any topic and submit it by the deadline.

Eliminate the stress of Research and Writing!

Hire one of our experts to create a completely original paper even in 3 hours!

Hire a Pro