Motivation Factors of Chinese Live Streaming Audiences

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The following section will look at the available literature on motivation factors of Chinese live streaming audiences. The particular focus will be placed at existing materials on what is motivation in general. This section will also review features on intrinsic motivation, self-determination theory and voyeurism. Other aspects that will be explored include extrinsic motivation, social reinforcement and social identity theory that will form a fundamental base for the study. Finally, literature existent on the role of Chinese culture, high collectivism and high conformity in influencing the audience’s live streaming culture will be reviewed to further inform the study. The objective of this research is to determine the motivating factors among the Chinese live streamers. This review seeks to determine the literature materials and studies done by scholars on different aspects of motivation in relation to live streaming. The aim is to investigate the understanding of why Chinese are motivated to use live streaming.


There are different definitions of motivation. Guthrie and Klauda (2014) define motivation as being an individual’s goal, values and beliefs in a specific area. On the other hand, Nagabhushan (2018) views motivation as an aspiration that energizes action towards the achievement of a set objective. Singh (2017) considers the notion as the process that involves initiation of action, provision of guidance, and the sustenance of behaviour that is goal-oriented.

Singh (2017) notes that the process of motivation entails both internal and external factors such as emotional, biological, cognitive, and social, which are involved in the activation of behaviour. The same view is promoted by Deckers (2015), who notes that motivation comes from a pull from external factors and a push from internal factors. The principle of motivation is in line with Maslow’s hierarchal needs, starting from satisfaction of physical needs to self-actualization (Singh, 2017). Motivation is determined by an individual’s personal goal and the intensity of his or her desire. Wentzel and Brophy (2014) argue that motivation can either be controlled or self-determined. Forgas and Harmon-Jones (2014) note that for motivation to be effective, it has to be controlled and hence, a complex connection exists between its psychological mechanisms and self-control. Forgas and Harmon-Jones (2014) add that motivation, and the control of its urges, bring about most of the behaviour exhibited by people, mostly socially.

The internal and external factors of motivation must combine to exceed a certain threshold for behaviour to occur (Deckers, 2015). Decker (2015) explains that behaviour can either result from a little external motivation provided and that there is a lot of influence from internal factors. The vice versa is true; with a little internal motivation and plenty of effect from external factors, behavior can occur (Deckers 2015). However, studies have shown an existent correlation among different types of motivation (Wentel and Brophy 2014).

Live streaming has become a social and economic phenomenon that has shown unprecedented growth globally (Hilvert-Bruce et al, 2018). There has been an increase in social media usage also called ‘Web 2.0’, which are open access services that are web based and are predicted upon active participation a large audience of users (Meiselwitz, 2018). One of the arising types of social media that people seem greatly motivated to use is SLSS (Social Live Streaming Services). Live streaming is a function that is synchronous; users are able to produce videos and users can then interact with the broadcaster in real time by using likes, rewards or chat messages, among other kind of gratifications (Tang, Venolia and Inkpen, 2016). Other users applied gamification elements that serve to increase their motivation to stream live. Gamification is utilization of game mechanisms in a non-gaming field to encourage use of the system (Scheibe, Fietkiewicz and Stock 2016). There are different users of the live stream services that can be categorized into three groups; producers, participants and consumers (Meiselweitz, 2018). Meiselwitz (2018) further explains that producers are the content developers who stream live while the participants take action such as leaving comments, likes and general interaction with the person posting the content. Finally, the consumers merely watch the streams and read the comments for entertainment and information but not actively take part (Meiselwitz, 2018)

Intrinsic Motivation

Psychologists refer intrinsic motivation as “non-drive-based motivation”, signifying that the energy is inherent to the nature of the person (Deci and Ryan 2013). Deci and Ryan (2013) consider this kind of drive as natural and innate inclination to participate in activities that one has an interest in and exercise his or her capabilities and as a result, seek and triumph over optimal challenges. Singh (2017) notes that intrinsic motivation comes from within a person: meaning that the task is fulfilling, satisfying or enjoyable. Deckers (2015) adds that intrinsic motivation is chosen freely by a person, is inherent in the task and can be due to curiosity or competence evaluation. Legault (2014) agrees that an intrinsic drive is naturally non-instrumental; the person does not have any concern or interest in what outcome will result or will be avoided by engaging in the activity. Deci and Ryan (2013) argue that intrinsic motivation can also be considered as effectance since people are innately driven to effectively deal with their environment. Effectance theory stipulates that naturally, a person possesses an intrinsic urge to discover and influence the surrounding, which not only acts as a motivation but also satisfies him or her (Bründl, Matt and Hess 2017).The satisfactory feeling that results from interacting competently with the surroundings is taken to be the reward and is able to maintain the behaviour, independent of any external factors (Deci and Ryan, 2013). Achievement motivation is designed to match an internal excellence measure and hence, can be considered to be part of an intrinsic drive (Deci and Ryan (2013). According to Deckers (2015), one of the defining characteristics of intrinsic motivation is the desirable subjective feeling called flow, which is resultant from a person being involved in a task that challenges his or her skills.

For many people, the use of live stream is for gratification, particularly for the consumers of live stream media whose only aim is for personal entertainment and a source of information that they are interested in (Meiselwitz, 2018). The view is supported by Wang (2018) who notes that fans of live stream media are motivated by not only the pleasure of knowing, but also that of knowledge exchange. The findings of a study on social motivations of Twitch’s engagement of live-streaming viewers undertaken by Hilvert-Bruce et al. (2018) indicated that people who preferred to view large channels were mainly motivated by minor social needs as entertainment. Scheibe, Fietkiewicz, and Stock (2016) note that people use live streaming for two main reasons: to belong and self-presentation. Meiselwitz (2018) argues that most of the producers undertake live streams with an aim of achieving self-actualization and self-preservation. The view is supported by Singh (2017), who notes that there is a link between motivation and the Maslow’s hierarchical needs. Getting to the top of the hierarchy such as achievement of self –preservation and self-actualization is an indication of a strong intrinsic drive (Singh 2017). A study by Chen and Lin (2018) on the driving forces of live stream usage found out that 65% of the 313 respondents watched the live content because it relieved stress and made them happy. Cai et al (2018) cite two potential factors that motivate people to engage in a live stream; interest in a particular topic and the level of interest the content has generated. Having an interest in the topic makes the individual willing to not only watch, but also participate in the live stream as personal gratification (Cai et al 2018).

By being synchronous in nature, SLSS provides opportunity to the viewers and streamers of engaging in immediate communication and feedback (Bründl, Matt and Hess, 2017). Through interaction with the live stream and ability to influence, effectance motivation can occur. Effectance is defined as the perceived influence that is exerted by a member of the audience on other people’s content (Bründl et al., 2017). According to Bründl et al (2017), the concept represents positive creation of effects upon an environment that acts as a motivating factor of competence. Hence, some people opt to use live streaming for their ability to interact and influence the content (Ng and Ng, 2007). According to Hamilton, Garretson and Kerne (2014), the possibility of affecting live stream is quite an important motive for many viewers as well as the interaction with the broadcaster.

Self-Determination Theory

The self-determination theory was put forth by Richard Ryan and Edward Deci in 1985 to increase understanding of intrinsic motivation (Wentzel and Brophy, 2014). The theory is a meta-theory of personality development and human motivation (Legault, 2017). The theorists believe that when an individual is motivated, he or she undertakes goal-oriented action with the intention of achieving something (Wentzel and Brophy, 2014). The central humanistic assumption is that an individual actively and naturally orients himself towards self-organization and growth (Legault, 2017). The self-determination theory stipulates that social settings play a crucial role in the promotion of intrinsic motivation by satisfying three major psychological needs; autonomy, competence and relatedness (Wentzel and Brophy, 2014). Deci and Ryan (2013) further argue that the three identified psychological needs are fundamental, universal and broad, with their effect on goal-oriented quests varying. According to Legault (2013), the psychological needs are important and if not met due to a deficient social environment, can result in an individual being fragmented, controlled and alienated.

Deci and Ryan have gone further to extend the scope of self-determination theory to include extrinsic motivation (Wentzel and Brophy, 2014). Wentzel and Brophy (2014) add that the theory analysis explains that actions that are extrinsically driven can turn out to be self-determined through integration and internalization. The conversion of a superficially set value into one that is adopted internally is referred to as internalization (Wentzel and Brophy 2014). Additionally, researchers define integration as the process through which the internalized values are assimilated into self. Deci and Ryan (2013) acknowledged four kinds of externally driven values that can be well-organized along a scale from exterior control to independent regulation. According to these theorists, external regulation occurs when people’s actions are regulated by rewards, constraints or pressures. Next on the scale is interjected regulation whereby behaviour is dictated by how people think they should and usually feel guilty if they do not. While such disposition to action is internalized to the extent that there is no longer need for prodding, there is still external pressure to the person (Wentzel and Brophy, 2014). Identified regulation is ensuing on the continuum and usually occurs when values are adopted by the person for being valuable and important to him or her. On top of the scale is integrated regulation, which is the form of extrinsic motivation that is most self-determined that occurs from value integration into an individual’s intelligible sense of self (Deci and Ryan 2013).

A study by Hamilton, Garretson and Kerne (2014) focusing on at live streaming on Twitch with specific focus on nurturing communities of play, identified two reasons why people watch live streams: due to their attraction to the content and for social interaction. Bründl et al (2017) note that when live stream content is watched by people together in an interactive setting, there is a lot of value attributed to the shared experience than is accorded to the actual content. In addition to this, shared consumption of content has the possibility of fostering pleasurable experiences through co-experience (Bründl et al, 2017). Bründl et al (2017), therefore, conclude that the audience’s gratification of passive behaviour relates positively with co-experience. However, it has no significance connection to effectance. The conclusion is contradicted by Bright (2013) who indicates that a person’s media enjoyment is heightened by the perception that the content is tailored for oneself. Fan et al (2017) however adds that the viewer’s active behaviour can also be influenced through co-experience. The argument is supported by Bründl et al (2017) who postulate that gratification of active behaviour through co-experience can occur in three ways. One is through participation when the viewer’s comment and action during the live stream constitutes other people’s experience (Bründl et al 2017; Fellman, 2014). Secondly, through cognitive communion where an individual fells that other people share their opinion (Bründl et al 2017). Thirdly, through resonant contagion, the person perceives that his comments act as an influence to others to come to agree to related opinions (Bründl et al 2017). Bründl et al (2017) come to the conclusion that there exists a positive connection between viewers’ gratification of active behaviour and co-experience. A major finding of the study undertaken by Hamilton et al (2014) is that people are more motivated to watch live streams due to co-experience with others rather than their ability to influence the content and interact with the broadcaster.


Voyeurism refers to the tendency of a person to observe something without other’s knowledge (Bensky and Fisher, 2014).The Internet has become a privy tool for people to spy on the lives of others significantly contributing to reduced privacy. Bensky and Fisher (2014) agree that the internet is well suited for this kind of behaviour, especially because it allows people to not only conceal their real identities but also access other people’s information on different aspects of their lives. While spying of people has being on-going for years, the digital ear has eased the ability to peep into other’s digital footprints to satiate the superficial curiosity about their private moments (Chen and Mandell 2016). Chen and Mandell (2016) define mediated voyeurism as the consumption of another person’s revealing information and images in their unguarded and real life, not only for entertainment but also at the expense of their discourse and privacy, through mass media and internet.

Live streaming has increased the danger of people not only spying on others but also transmitting these images and information to paying cyber peeppers who show them live on various online platforms (Flieger 2014). Flieger (2014) continues to state that due to the increased live streams, the human body has been offered up to unprecedented access although there is a decrease in real contact.

Negative and controversial information attracts a lot of viewers’ interest and acts as a motivation for them to watch live streams (Chen and Mandell, 2016). The situation is made grave by the fact that the millennial generation does not limit itself to being onlookers but also being the objects of surveillance, sometimes with a sacrificial resonance (Flieger 2014). The recent commercialization of voyeurism into a ‘reality’ craze has been an encouragement to people in undertaking virtual peeping, which in some instances is streamed live (Flieger 2014). An (2016) agrees that live streaming has become a favourite activity for many people since the launch of the mobile application ‘Meerkat’. An (2016) adds that voyeurism has been on the rise with people getting obsessed with watching the unguarded activities of others such as sleeping, eating, idling, driving, as well as intimate moments. The view is supported by Lottridge et al (2017) who in their study on third-wave live streaming noted the need to find out what motivates live streamers. According to An (2016), it does not matter if the activities are unexceptional or non-erotic, people are motivated to watch as long as they are happening in private spaces

Extrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic motivation is due to external factors that cause an individual to act towards the fulfilment of a goal or task, and are mainly either rewards or punishments. Singh (2017) adds that a reward prompts the person to work towards receiving it while in the case of the punishment, the individual works towards avoidance. In agreement to this, Rolls (2013) defines motivation as state in which punishment is being avoided or a reward sought. Deckers (2015), notes that such external incentives such as money, praise or acceptance can cause motivation. In essence, Deci and Ryan (2013) conclude that extrinsic motivation is undertaking an activity for other reasons than an interest in the task itself. However, in some cases, behaviour that is triggered by extrinsic motivation, in the end can be sustained by intrinsic factors (Deckers 2015). On the hand, the introduction of external factors to influence behavior can either minimize the inherent value of the activity or heighten the performance of the basic action (Deckers 2015).

The use of games or their element, mechanism or dynamism in contexts that are non-game such as in live streaming, is an added motivating factor for the audiences and keeps most of them engaged in search of rewards (Meiselwitz, 2018). SCM and Meiselwitz (2018) appreciates that mobile application developers and a majority of SLSS broadcasters are already employing this method to engage, motivate and increase the audience’s activity on the internet. The success of such a move is evidenced by an ever increasing number of participants in live streaming, who are mainly driven by extrinsic factors such as rewards and social interactions (Meislewitz, 2018). However, even for producers, different sites are offering varying forms of motivation. For example, YouNow offers a broadcasting nine badge for different levels that include; Novice, Rookie, Captain, Rising Star, Boss, Ace, Superstar, Pro and Partner (Meiselwitz, 2018). The achievement of these badges serves as external drive for the people involved in creating content for live stream. The number of ‘likes’ that a live stream has, has the potential to influence other people to watch it and hence, increase the sales volume (Cai et al 2018). Additionally, the consumers and participants are more inclined to watch live videos from producers who have advanced through the different levels expecting the quality to be better than of those who are beginning. Results of study conducted by Scheibe, Fietkiewicz and Stock (2016) on motivating factors of YouNow users indicated that 58.5% enjoyed the reception of digital presents while 34% took the collection of all manner of presents to be an important goal. The results further showed that 50% of the audience considered a move in the ranks of the streamer’s playlist to be vital, while reaching another level was crucial for 38.3% of them (Scheibe, Fietkiewicz and Stock, 2016).

Social Reinforcement

People’s behavior is highly influenced by the society that they live in and whether it approves of their actions or not. Behaviour is acquired through social conditioning and imitation/ modelling (Delamater, Myers and Collett 2014). Social reinforcement is considered to include not only the direct reaction of other people present during the performance of the act, but also both the tangible and intangible recompenses of the society and its sub-groups (Akers 2017). Akers (2017) however, notes that some scholars restrict social reinforcement to instances where other people are present and play an active role in either supporting or dissuading the action. By doing so, Aker (2017) feels that the restriction is unnecessary since the society will reinforce behaviour even without people being present during the activity. The social reinforcement theory stipulates that behavior is directed by events that are external to an individual and through these events; the person is able to know himself and conscious of his surrounding (Miller, 2013). For the people who have a great deal of self-reinforcement, their actions are not deterred by negative social reinforcement since they are able to fall back to their esteem (Ziller, Goldstein and Krasner 2014). On the other hand, an individual with low self-assurance tends to rely heavily on social reinforcement that results in decreased stability of their participation in shared undertakings (Ziller, Goldstein and Krasner, 2014). As such, people usually imitate the behaviour of those popular and leaders within the community due to the perception that they are high-power and have high self-esteem (Tedeschi, 2017). Social reinforcement further increases with the understanding and adherence of the communal norms stipulated by a majority (Ziller, Goldstein and Krasner, 2014).

In the world of live stream, social reinforcement plays a major role in motivating or dissuading people to participate. A study conducted by Nematzadeh et al. (2016) on information overload in social media, found out that there is there is little variety in the content with most of t showing evidence of being replicated from other sources. Moreover, the content is met with high social reinforcement that acts as a motivation for others to view the live streams even with the knowledge that the content is a re-production (Nematzadeh et al., 2016). While the society is conditioned to follow the norms and rules of the majority, unconditioned reinforcement of behaviours that is not arrested or is supported by a small section of the community has resulted in controversial content on live stream (Ziller et al., 2014; Ruben 2015).

Live streaming has become a norm in some countries such as China where over 400 million people view, with a majority of the audience watching e-sport competitions (Wang, 2018). The development of common interests in live stream activities by a big part of the people motivates them to keep participating (Wang, 2018). Wang (2018), further states that the sharing of content that is audience-generated such as comments and opinions serves to open up conversations among viewers and has the potential of resulting in social ties. The approval given by the society in regard to the participation of an individual serves as motivation for that person especially with the possibility of being recognised and earing status from comments on live stream content (Wang, 2018).

Entertainment and Relaxation

Studies show that there is correlation between Entertainment and relaxation. Notably, live streaming provides different types of entertainment, including music and games (Triandis, 2018). As mental soothing powers, various forms of entertainment are known to help in emotional stability, including management of stress. For example, live streaming of music have a relaxation effect on one’s body and mind, especially if it is a quiet, slow , classical piece. According to Lim et al. (2016), entertainment plays an instrumental role in people’s psychological functions as well as slowing of the heart and pulse rates, decreasing the levels of stress hormones, and ensuring that blood pressure is lowered.

Study reveals that based on the type of entertainment used, an individual can reduce anxiety and improve mood, thus enhancing people’s life (Wang, 2018). Certain types of entertainment, such as live streaming of Yoga, are believed to provide relaxation through slowing down the mind and initiating the relaxation response. On this basis, the existing connection between Entertainment and relaxation makes it easier for the two variables to be collectively studies in relation to live streaming.

Social Identity

Identity is regarded as a set of meanings that is established by socio-cultural interactions of the subject and the world (Maia and Valente 2013). The theory of social identity was developed by Tajfel in 1981 who postulated that an individual defines himself as part of a group that is attractive to him (Smith, Bond and Kâğitçibaşi, 2013). Each person has an available variety of social identities based on various social categories that he or she belongs to such as age, ethnicity, gender, occupation, religion, and family (Hogg and Terry 2014). Smith (2013) further states that personal identity, therefore, can be defined based on the perceived differences of an individual and others.

Due to the increased use of the internet, people have resulted in creation of digital identities that are meant to curb an individual’s distribution and fracturing presence online by creating authoritative and a consistent personality (Warburton and Hatzipanagos, 2013) Digital identities tend to be different from the person but act as motivation for the individual to participate in live streaming mainly through commenting to express his opinion (Warburton and Hatzipanagos 2013). Similarly, Scheibe, Fietkiewicz and Stock (2016) note that fake accounts are created by the consumers of the live stream media who may want to view the content and participate without being recognised since on the internet anyone can be whoever they want. In most cases, people are captivated by the fictional extension of themselves and hence, are driven to utilize this identity in engaging in the online world (Wang, 2018). Warburton and Hatzipanagos (2013) add that in the online world, there is need for emphasis on the relations between identity, technology and community. The necessity is particularly where cyberspace communities exist and the person managing the communal identity not only has to take interests of the members at heart, but also reflect their shared opinion and principles (Warburton and Hatzipanagos 2013).

According to the results of an empirical study by Scheibe, Fietkiewicz and Stock (2016), most of the audiences are motivated to watch live content that is streamed by their friends and people within their age group. The study further found out that people tend to link their live stream accounts, YouNow in particular, to other social platforms like Twitter, Instagram and Facebook with an aim of sharing contents with their friends (Scheibe, Fietkiewicz and Stock, 2016). Additionally, a study by Zhang and Liu (2015) on crowd sourced interactive live streams showed that live messaging and associated social connections that occur act as a drive for viewership and participation. However, the personality of the producer also comes into play making the audience feel like he is part of them (Wang 2018). Wang (2018) cites an example of Ou, who produces live stream content citing the role played by his ability to interact smoothly with the audience and create a relaxing aura that develops a feeling of cohesion with others.

Chinese Culture

The Chinese people are known worldwide for their culture; their use of the Internet and live stream in particular exhibit several types. One is the mainstream culture that is dominant opinion and way of life by a majority (Wang, 2018) of the people in a certain setting and is considered to be acceptable (Lumsden 2013). Second is fan culture which develops around specific texts and the nature of which differentiates those who are interested from those who are not (Wang, 2018). A fan is a person who actively consumes popular cultural products related to a certain idol(s) (Lim et al., 2016). For example, there are fans of a certain producer of live stream content. Third is a participatory culture, where an individual does not only consume, but also participates in the commodities as either producers or contributors enabling collaboration (Wang, 2018) For example, the practice of tipping in live streams has been growing in China, where the audience purchases virtual gifts as rewards to the streamers (Lee et al., 2018). Delwiche and Henderson (2013) note that the characteristics of participatory culture include; low obstruction of artistic expression, strong support for creation and sharing of one’s content, mentorship of the novices, and civic engagement. Additionally, people hold the belief that their contribution is of importance and have a social connection amongst them (Delwiche and Henderson 2013). Such belief in the significance of their involvement motivates the people to keep participating (Delwiche and Henderson 2013).

In the game live streaming business, China is indicated to be the largest emerging market worldwide (Wang, 2018). The growth is despite having 46% rate of Internet penetration (Holmes, Balnaves and Wang, 2015). The interaction of people within the live stream has a cultural aspect such as the language used (Wang, 2018). Wang (2018) notes that the use of officially authorised logo and topics relate to the mainstream culture draws attention to the content. For a country that is close knit in terms of culture, there tends to be a lot of support for streamers of their own especially in the gaming world (Lim and Ward, 2017). Consumers tend to be more receptive to content and platforms that are culturally acceptable and hence, the developers have to take into consideration and study such aspects as culture, games and media (Gandolfi, 2016). Culturally, the Chinese are also known as hardworking people and hence, the live stream gaming is taken with the same amount of seriousness, which is evidenced by the large amount of money that the game streamers invest (Williamson, 2017). As such, people are hopeful that if they invest a good amount of money in the games, they are also bound to reap the benefits (Wang, 2018).

However compared to Western countries, China is highly conservative nation (Xu et al., 2018). The local language, Chinese, and the cultural practices are strongly considered as one of the aspects that separates China from the rest. In this case, culture is revered and respected among the Chinese communities and individuals (Xu, Chen and Xu, 2018). To the contrary, in a country such as UK, though culture is also an integrative aspect, the society is more open and diversified as opposed to the case of China. The democratic freedom also helps to boost the growth of live streaming. The UK is politically more democratic compared to Chain. Therefore, individuals are able to freely express their views through live streaming as opposed to Chinese whose freedom is highly controlled.

High Collectivism

The concept of individualism or collectivism refers to the degree to which a person is meant to keep on being incorporated into a group(s) (Hu 2015). Collectivism emphasizes on the common good rather than the individual and correspond closely with most people being able to trace their origins quite far back (Triandis, 2018). The larger Chinese region is well known for high collectivism as part of its culture (Hong, 2017). In support of this, Holmes, Balnaves and Wang (2015) note that the Chinese culture and society’s working can be attributed to high collectivism. Holmes et al (2015) add that even in the business aspect, collectivism plays a great role. As such, in the gaming live stream industry in China, gifting practices are quite common and given by people from all walks of life (Kunming and Blommaert, 2017). The Chinese collectivism is also evident in online social networks and underlies the formation of social capital on internet platforms (Xu and Zhang, 2017). Xu and Zhang (2017) add that the relation individualism and collectivism also needs to be taken into consideration when undertaking live streaming. Yang (2017) undertook a study on culture and social inequality on trust of online retailers that highlighted the high collectivism level in China while comparing it to the individualism of the USA. Findings of the research indicated that collectivism contributes to trust in the live streamers and the third parties and hence, people are motivated to participate since they are confident that the producer also has their interests at heart (Yang 2017). According to Hu (2015), the high collectivism level of the Chinese prompt them to socialize in groups, which supports the findings of Bründl et al (2017) that a lot of p

January 19, 2024

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