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In most systems nowadays, passwords are among the frequently utilized security-enhancing techniques. Security is tighter when utilizing strong passwords rather than weak ones. They can, however, be attacked in a variety of ways, such as guessing or cracking. These are regarded as time-consuming attacks (Ewaida, 2010).

As security professionals, we must be familiar with passwords since they are crucial to understanding how information security works and how it may be compromised. The Windows operating system has five different ways to save passwords: memory, LM harsh and reversibly encrypted storage, NTLM hash, reversibly encrypted, and catcher credentials. In the same text, we look how password is used in different environments such as LM, NTLM, or NTLMV2 to authenticate the users. The author also explains at how the passwords can be attacked through guess work (online attack), cracking (offline attack) (Ewaida, 2010).

The significant different between the toe methods is that in the offline attacks, the passwords have no protection while in online attacks the passwords have the full protection of the system on which they are stored. The author also introduced another method of attacking passwords known as the Pass-the-hash Attack. Pass-the-hash attacks are usually directed against Windows systems much as they can be found on other systems. During investigation, the author tested the pass-the-hash tools in the laboratory environment while sporting different windows versions. He made tests on the functionality and behavior of each tool on the operating system. The tools used were Msvctl, Pshtoolkit, tenable smbshel, Metasploit PSEXEC module, and the JOMO-KUN (FOFUS pass-the-hash patch). In the investigation, it was found that these tools receive NTLM credentials and use such credential to change the NTLM hashes that are associated with current log on memory session of the windows (Ewaida, 2010).

Question #1: What are the differences between the four major types of wireless topologies WWAN, WLAN, WPAN, and WMAN?

In terms of distance to cover, wireless networks use different topologies, which include the following

WPAN stands for wireless personal area network. It has a short range of 7-10meters. It commonly uses the 802.15 specifications family to connect a few devices that have low consumption of power. One of the examples of WPAN is the blue tooth.

WAN stands for wireless local area network. WAN consumes more power, however; its connection coverage extends to 100 meters.

WMAN is the abbreviation for wireless metropolitan area networks it extends range o coverage to large geographical areas such as a suburb or city. Its applications may vary from point to point or point to multipoint like to the coverage that supports multiple users at the same time. WMAN uses a licensed frequency much a there are also some implementations in the ISM bands. The example of WMAN is WIMAX whose implementation requires the use of licensed bands.

WWAN stands for wireless wide area network and provides connectivity over a large geographical area; it is commonly used for mobile phones and data services. In addition, carriers usually transmit signals. It uses licensed frequencies (Westcott and Coleman, 2014).

Question #2: Define virtual and physical carrier senses.

Carrier sense is the ability of receiver to sense and decode an incoming signal preamble from a wife network. According to 802.11 wireless adhoc networks, virtual and physical carrier sensing are defined to avoid any interference in wireless LANs for such interference originating from the range of the receiver. One of the examples of the physical carrier sense is the clear channel assessment, which lists all the received energy on the interference of the radio waves. Network allocation vector is an example of the virtual carrier sense normally used by base stations to receive the medium for mandatory features that must follow the current frames.

Question #3: What is the media access control (MAC) process and describe each frame used during the process.

Media access control is a generic term used when discussing the concept of access control. There are different ways through which media controls can be provided. Media access control layer is lower sub layer at the layer 2 of the OSI model. It provides addressing and cable control measures that deter several terminals or network nodes from communing within multiple networks accesses that incorporates a shared medium. Media access control process involves a number of frames namely; polling which sequentially checks each terminal to see whether there is data to proceed. Another frame used is called token passing and connection methods used to provide access to the media. Another control frame used in media access control is the ACK frame (Westcott and Coleman, 2014). It is a simple frame consisting of 14 octets of information such that when a station receives data, it must wait for a shorter period before transmitting it.

Question #4: Define what WLAN bridges and workgroup bridges are? Define the role and configuration of both.

Workgroup bridges are wireless devices that provide wireless connectivity to the wired network infrastructure devices that do not have radio cards. Some workgroup bridges provide connectivity for only one wired device and are sometimes referred to as a universal client. The workgroup bridges can be very useful when providing network connectivity for small desktop workgroups, network printers, cash registers, or any other device that has Ethernet ports. Wireless LAN bridges, on the other hand, plug the used to connect wires network. It can directly interface Ethernet network to a particular access point it plugs the devices into Ethernet network and uses the 802.11 Protocol to communicate to the nearby access point within the same coverage range.

Question #5: What is a fixed mobile convergence and why is it important?

Fixed mobile convergence provides a single device with a single phone number that can swath between networks, using the lowest costly network. Fixed mobile convergence systems allow the roaming o across all the network hence it is easier to vitiate a phone call using any Wi-Fi network. In addition, the devices are capable of communicating via voice Wi-Fi network or a cellular telephone network. With fixed mobile convergence, it is easier for have a single device and a single phone number that works anywhere using the cheapest network available at any time.

Question #6: What is the hidden node problem? Define the importance of channel reuse.

The hidden node problem happens in case one client station’s transmissions are not heard by some of the other client stations in the coverage area of a basic service set (BSS). In this case, clients cannot hear each other hence can transmit simultaneously. Much as the access port would perceive each translation because the clients are transmitting at the same time, using the same frequency, the transmissions of the client may end up being corrupted. Channel reuse deign is important to avoid adjacent channel and co-channel interference (Westcott and Coleman, 2014).

Question #7: What are the basics of VPN technology and when it might be used in a WLAN environment?

Virtual private networks are used in Wi-Fi security and should definitely be used for remote access control. They are also sometimes used in wireless bridging environments. The two major types of VPN topologies are router-to-router or client-server based. For remote access to the network, it is necessary to use VPN. End users can’t take those network devices out of the site hence can only use public access hotspots of the wireless network, a VPN solution is needed to provide security at most of the hotspots. The user on such technology must bring security to the hotspot for purposes of providing a secure and encrypted connection. Therefore, it is imperative that users should implement a virtual private network solution in combination with personal firewalls during access to any public wireless network.

Question #8: What are peer-to-peer attacks, and how do you defend against them?

Peer to peer attack are those attacks on the wireless network when it is configured to operate in an ad-hoc mode, whereby all communications are connected in form of peer-to-peer without any access point. Such attacks can be avoided by use of personal firewalls (Westcott and Coleman, 2014)

Question #9: Define capacity and coverage needs.

The most neglected aspect of making site surveys is to determine the capacity and coverage needs of the wireless local area network. One of the needs is cell sizing, necessary for high-density design in WLAN. It is necessary to address coverage requirements. In addition, it is imperative to determine the number of users per every access point, the coverage ratio to help the end user experience an acceptable performance.

Question #10: Define the AP placement, power, and channel settings for coverage analysis.

Coverage analysis determines the proper placement of access points and power settings. In case the site is surveyed, all the cell edge measurement must be recorded and written on the floor plan of the building. All wiring closet locations must be noted on the floor plan. It is imperative to take enough are and ensure that the access point has been passed within the range of 100 meters vertical cabling distances must be and the horizontal runs must be accounted for.


Bashar Ewaida (2010); Pass-the-hash attacks: Tools and Mitigation. Retrieved from

David A. Westcott and David D. Coleman (2014). CWNA: Certified Ed Wireless Network Administrator, Fourth Edition; ISBN.1118893700

May 24, 2023
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