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A human being has a different perception of reality; in Stuart Hampshire's book "The Innocence Experience," he argues that no modern society or individual can escape the conflicts that frequently arise between incompatible moral interests. Philosophers have spent a long time trying to discover some underlying moral and justice notions that can aid in conflict resolution and remain valid in all societies. According to Hampshire's philosophy, such things are impossible. He argued that diverse states could be held together and that violence between them could only be averted by respecting the political process and adhering strictly to justice. “Innocence experience” by S. Hampshire gives a close examination of the critical relationship that usually exists between justice and morality. through paying close attention to human subjectivism that Hampshire strongly opposes and trying to give a reply to the Machiavelli's claim which proposes that leaders are obliged to decide between unavoidable evils as a result of the realities of politics.
Morality is defined as the behavioral system of the human being regarding set standards of right and wrong. Morality in its definition carries three concepts which include the human being moral standards with the respect of their current behaviors; human being moral responsibility about human conscience and finally moral identity also referred to as the one who is capable of taking a right or wrong action. In the multicultural world that we live in, morality has become one of the complicated issues to be addressed. Justice, on the other hand, can be defined as a set or system of human behaviors that are in agreement with the law. Justice is used to describing the actions of people which conforms to the constitutes of the autorotative instruments which helps in controlling the social and moral life of people in different countries. Justice usually denotes a moral disposition in a society which helps men to do things to the right and just way. S. Hampshire’s in his book explored different theory on morality and justice on how they affect human lives, in the context of human behaviors, human conscience, the society, and the ultimate destination of human beings.
In the philosophy of S. Hampshire’s Morality is taken to be important aspect since it helps in governing human behaviors through defining a set of principles which are essential in ensuring that society survives for a long time. Currently, in different parts of the world, morality is being thought of as a particular belonging point of view, through the definition of morality we see this is not the case. Relationship of morality to human being behaviors is significant on three levels. The three levels are well defined in the S. Hampshire's book of the innocent experience as follows. To begin with, Morality is important in ensuring and fostering fair play and harmony between Individuals living in society; morality is also crucial in helping people to be good to build a healthy community, and final level is that morality helps in maintaining the proper relationship between human beings and the power that created them.
Hampshire's brought about the philosophy of utilitarianism to help explain morality and justice in his book of the innocence experience. Unilateralism has been used as one of the clearest moral theory because it has simple central notion and core, the method can be easily trapped and translated into practical terms. The essential instructions of the theory go as follows. In an assessment of the value of institutions, rules, and laws, manners conventions, habits while putting into consideration the merits of individual actions and policies. It is crucial also for one to turn his attention to the actual or probable states of minds of the person who will be or who is being affected by them. Since this form the basis of all that should be included in the assessment. For an event of the final analysis, nothing counts more than the state of mind, or sometimes it is narrowed down to the states of feelings of that particular person. In case there is the need for anything else to be inclusive, to be part of the indefinite range of human-made and natural things. It should be first reckoned as just mere machinery or also as a possible instrument to be used in producing the all – ill- significant all – bad states of human feelings. From these right points of view, the whole system of natural machinery order other than the state of mind machinery can be at a time useful or harmful in portions as at a time they can promote or presents a person desired states of feeling.
Morality has some effects on human being conscience mainly because it impacts positively in human being daily decision-making processes. Many people believe that human being conscience is a matter of their hearts. Also, men hold the idea that the concepts of fairness, right and wrong are programmed in person mind. It is very difficult or sometimes impossible to calculate the real effects of new moral ideas or any other new upon men’s lives. The philosophy of utilitarian as explained by Hampshire has brought a lot of interest in the study of the political economy of different countries. Besides bringing interest into the study of political economy utilitarian philosophy has also brought interest in the theory of practice of public administration, into the programs and the rhetoric of movement in policy and social reforms in the Britain. The utilitarian philosophy brought about by S. Hampshire in his book of the "innocence experience” of the recent past has become part of the ordinary furniture mind of the enlightened persons in the Britain. And they have started criticizing institutions not only from the stand point of the Christian churches but also from a secular perspective.
Hampshire explains the term innocence experience through making arguments that most current moral and academic philosophy represent the own ideas of people rather than the realities that exist in the public experience. The conflicts that occur between incompatible moral ideas mostly in social, international Arenas are difficult to avoid mainly because they are part and parcel of individuals lives. There is attempt that has been made to look for an underlying moral consensus valid in a just society by different groups which includes theologians, politicians and various philosophers. The primary challenge to such consensus is the diversity of the human species and the differences in defining good life by different cultures. Such conflict can only be mitigated through the respect of procedural justice.
In the book of “Innocence experience," Hampshire firmly believe that themes concerning moral philosophy always come from the writer's own experience. The writer always in his book has given a brief and a compelling account of his personal life experience to help the readers to interpret and have a clear understanding of the sources of his philosophy. Through the combination of imaginative power and intellectual rigor, Hampshire in his book of the innocence experience has given bright illumination of the tension that exists between justice and other sources of values that exist in a society and the lives of an individual.
In the issue of Machiavelli and his contemporary issues, the intended consequences could have been mitigated through a simple political calculation but not through private interventions. The Machiavelli together with his contemporaries lacks the thought that political calculation might be significances in issuing the plan that will govern the whole nation or the society. The political calculation will have the necessary parameter fed into the calculation process. Standard measures method of computation will now seem like the most orthodox way of thinking with regards to politics, despite the fact that such type of calculation initially was almost scandalous. Instances of scandal and surprises usually lingered around the notion of moral requirements at the beginning. Outrages of morals could also have a representation as part of commensurable losses and possible gains along the single scale. People that frequently talk like the ones responsible for making a political decision will then believe that it is mandatory for moral issues to be represented in on a universal scale for them to be counted at all.
In the case of many young people who lived in America and Europe but could not quote the Burke, it is now obvious that the idea of the use of large scale computation in modern politics and the area of social planning will bring along grossness and coarseness of the moral feeling. The political calculation also come along with the suppressions of individuals discrimination and gentleness, blunting of human sensibility that is usually a price that will not pay for situations of apparent calculations. This point is worth putting into consideration since it can be given a philosophical basis.
It is one of the most vital political and moral concept that S. Hampshire vividly described in the book of the "Innocence experience." It is derived from the Latin word “jus” that means right or sometimes law, philosophical definition presented by S. Hampshire goes beyond dictionary definitions and etymology. Philosophy of Hampshire views justice as both a moral virtue of character as well as the desired quality of political society. It also includes how justice is applicable in decision making in the social and ethical field. Innocence experience does not only explain the theories of justice but also shows how Hampshire apply the method to controversial social issues such as civil disobedience, war, slavery, genders biases and in international relations.
According to the book of innocence and experience, justice and morality have some relationship in between the two. However, constitutes of justice may vary depending on the country historical content and cultural diversity among the people, but generally, all forms of justice are usually built on some foundation that is firmly based on moral assumptions. The moral assumption usually involves the ideas about law, ethics, and fairness'. Hampshire vigorously debated the relationship of both justice in his book and provided the instance of similarities between them. He outlined that a society that has morality also exercises justice since the two goes hand in hand.
According to the Hampshire, philosophy, justice is usually a virtue of that aims at establishing the rational order which each of its parts usually performs its designated role without interfering with the functions of other parts. Justice is taken to mainly consist of what is right and lawful; it also involves fairness primarily through the equitable distribution of resources and correcting areas where there are instances of inequitable. Basic procedural justice according to Hampshire requires that at all times we should try to give people what they deserve as guided by the morals philosophy. Justice is widely believed to be an artificial virtue that is necessary for any civil society as well as a function the guides the voluntary contract among the people living in a specific society. Philosophy of Hampshire analyses justice also in terms maximum equal liberty of people about their basic fundamental rights and their duties for all the members of society. A just society should not have a socio – economic inequalities that require moral justification in the creation of an equal opportunity to people and beneficial results for all.
In conclusion, S. Hampshire philosophy explained in the book Innocence experience regards justice as one of the most fundamental virtues of all the existing virtues that help in ordering interpersonal relations and also playing an important role in establishment and maintenance of a stable political society. Through understanding and applying the theories of morality and justice as explained by Hampshire, it will help promoting peace in society by making people to respect others as free and rational agents.
Hampshire, Stuart. 1992. Innocence And Experience. Penguin.
Meier, Robert F, and Gilbert Geis. 2006. Criminal Justice And Moral Issues. Los Angeles, Calif.: Roxbury Pub. Co.
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