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Negative feedback always works to correct a deviation from a specific set point; it aims to restore everything to normal. Examples include body temperature and blood pressure. On the other hand, positive feedback involves changes from the usual point and amplification of the processes after changes have occurred. For instance, blood clot formation and milk production in lactating mothers. A specific example of a feedback mechanism is homeostasis; the stimulus is the rise of body temperature above normal, Receptors are the sensory nerves that send signals to the control center, which is the brain. The effectors are the skin blood vessels, which dilate to release heat. Consequently, there is a response as body heat is lost to the surrounding.
During the first part of protein synthesis, also known as transcription, the data stored in the gene’s DNA is transferred to a to a similar RNA, the information is carried in the messenger RNA. During the processing, the mRNA ferries the information from the DNA into the cytoplasm. Translation is the last stage where the mRNA interacts with the ribosomes, which recognizes the sequence of the mRNA bases that form particular amino acids. The amino acids are a building block for the proteins.
One of the common types of arthritis is known as Osteoarthritis; it occurs due to old age, injury or obesity. It occurs as a result of excessive use of the joints that causes wear and tear. When the body’s shock absorbers are lost, the cartilage that covers ends of bone progressively breaks down resulting to pain during movement. Another type is Rheumatoid Arthritis where the immune system attacks the joints of the body. The attack results in inflammation that causes severe joint damage if not treated promptly.
Contraction of the muscles is initiated in the central nervous system; a motor neuron in the spinal code is then activated. The axon branches to supply the motor unit and then the action potential is carried to the motor end plate where the release of the packet into the surface of the muscle fibers is initiated by the action potential. At this stage, contraction is experienced with the help of calcium ions which are released by sarcoplasmic reticulum.
The autonomic nervous system regulates the essential state of physiology such as heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, digestion, and perspiration. The ANS is divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system and endocrine glands, which control the hormone levels in the human brains. The sympathetic system acts upon glands and organs to mobilize resources reproduction such as salivation.
The somatic nervous system has sensory receptors in the skin; the receptors send sensory information through the spine to the synapses on inter-neurons which in turn synapse on motor neurons that proceeds to activate muscle movements. The sensory information received at the spine goes through the medulla, the midbrain, to the thalamus, and then arrives at the sensory cortex.
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