self disclosure and new technologies

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The irregular rise of technology over the past ten years has had a significant impact on how people connect. According to estimates, American technology use has quickly increased over the past ten years, rising from 16% to 81%. (Choi & Bazarova, 2015). The development of social media technologies, which have taken off like wildfire, has provided insight into this.

Social network sites and other emerging technologies enable individuals to reveal themselves to a potentially limitless audience (Rains, Brunner, & Oman, 2016). Reaching such a large network in one go opens up a lot of opportunity for influence. Certain individuals seek fame and can transform into celebrities on a credit of views or likes obtained from an unlimited resource of viewers or subscribers (Ledbetter & Redd, 2016). To others, new technologies has become a shield of which they can stand behind to express themselves openly and anonymously to avoid direct criticism. In any case, it is critical to understand the impacts new technologies have on the extent to which individuals self-disclose. Self-disclosure throughout the world, nonetheless new technologies, is evident, ever-present, and unavoidable (Ruppel, 2015).

It is by researching the specificity of self-discloses that a better comprehension can be acquired as to how these technologies influence communication behaviors. Does the type of technology used determine the impact it will have on self-disclosure? Are children impacted differently than adults? Are males and females impacted differently? And if so, to what extent? It is clear that there are many researchable factors that can play a vital role in determining how the self-disclosure process happens among individuals and analyzing these factors is key in revealing how new technologies impact them. In order to accomplish this, it is important to establish forms of new technologies as well as what self-disclosure consists of. It is out of this that conclusion can be drafted and any unaddressed questions remaining can be further explored. This paper delves into a literature of review on the role that new technology plays in self-disclosure amongst individuals.

Social disclosure is the process by which an individual lets their emotions as well as thoughts known to another individual. Online social networking sites have recreated interpersonal interactions in which people are able to interact at a private capacity as well as in a public capacity (Cheung, 2015). One of the major social media platforms of the recent time is Facebook. The social media giant has enabled people to express themselves in different ways through its posting page (Hollenbaugh, 2014). The social media website has over 1 billion active users spread out all over the world. In the United States of America, the platform has become like a basic need. The major reason why the platform has become very popular is because of the huge amounts of self-disclosure that are often displayed within the platform. The platform enables its users express themselves in different ways. (Utz, 2015) argues that Facebook has enabled people to air their political views on the platform. The 2016 US general elections saw one of the most heated presidential campaigns for a long time. This was largely contributed by the presence of social media platforms in which people from all walks of life were able to made their thoughts known on the platform (Carlisle, 2016).

Unlike the past years in which people did not have a platform for making their political voices heard, Facebook has now enabled to express their opinions on the pertinent political matters of their various countries. It was common during the election year to find Republican and Democrat supporters trading abuses in social media as each group wanted to justify themselves that their preferred candidate was the best placed to take the country to the desired levels (Marichal, 2016). This at the end of the day led to the spread of hatred as well as circulation of fake news which at the end of the day may have had a direct influence on the results of the elections.

(Carlisle, 2016) argues that Facebook has changed the way in which people think about political matters. This has been mainly contributed by the fact that the platform enables people to reveal their political stances.

As a rule, a few people are actually more straightforward and willing to self-unveil, while others are more murky and reluctant to uncover individual data (Jourard, 1964). Strikingly, late research proposes that the inescapability of unscripted tv, quite a bit of which incorporates members who are extremely eager to reveal individual data, has prompted a general pattern among unscripted tv watchers to participate in self-exposure through other interceded means, for example, blogging and video sharing (Stefanone and Lakaff, 2009). Regardless of whether it is on the web or up close and personal, there are different purposes behind revealing or, excluding self-engaged, other-engaged, relational, and situational reasons (Green, Derlega, and Mathews, 2006).

Self-centered purposes behind divulgence incorporate having a good feeling or cleansing, clearing up or amending data, or looking for support. Self-centered explanations behind not revealing incorporate dread of dismissal and loss of protection. As it were, we may unveil to get something out into the open with expectations of discovering help, or we may not uncover out of dread that the other individual may respond contrarily to our disclosure. Other-centered explanations behind revelation incorporate an awareness of other's expectations to illuminate or instruct. Other-centered explanations behind not uncovering incorporate feeling like the other individual won't ensure the data. On the off chance that somebody specifies that their auto wouldn't begin at the beginning of today and you reveal that you are great at dealing with autos, you've uncovered to assist the other individual. On the opposite side, you may keep down divulgence about your new relationship from your associate since he or she's known to be free lipped with other individuals' data. Relational purposes behind revelation include yearnings to keep up a trusting and personal relationship. Relational explanations behind not unveiling incorporate dread of losing the relationship or esteeming the data immaterial to the specific relationship. Your choice to unveil an issue keeping in mind the end goal to open up to your accomplice and ideally work through the result together or withhold that data out of dread he or she will abandon you depends on relational reasons. At long last, situational reasons might be the other individual being accessible, specifically posing a question, or being straightforwardly required in or influenced by the data being unveiled. Situational purposes behind not revealing incorporate the individual being inaccessible, an absence of time to completely examine the data, or the absence of an appropriate (i.e., peaceful, private) place to talk. For instance, ending up in a peaceful situation where neither one of the persons is occupied could prompt divulgence, while a house brimming with organization may not.

Technology has also significantly altered the way people relate. As compared to the past, now it is possible for people to meet online and forge new relationships. This is made possible through the availability of dating sites where it is possible for someone to find people they have never met before and commence an online conversation online and end up being soul mates (Bazarova, 2014). For example, the ‘like’ button in Facebook enables people to self-disclose on their inner feelings by giving people an opportunity to like the status of their friends. The liking of a given status communicates a certain message to the person who has just shared an update on what they think. To them it is as if the person who has just liked the post has really liked their post and as such will be encouraged to post new status of the same line in the near future.

YouTube is a video-sharing site that started in 2005 that "enables people to associate with the worldwide group by survey and sharing client created video content" (Georgetown University, 2010). Since such a variety of recordings are shared by individuals around the globe, customary generalizations of gatherings of individuals start to decrease. Individuals have the chance to remark on recordings and take an interest in exchanges and gatherings. Various individuals have utilized YouTube, and this advancement "turned into a main impetus for change the world over" (Ostrow, 2010). YouTube has more than 78 million clients with more than 150,000 recordings transferred day by day (Lake, 2009). Many organizations utilize recordings to elevate their business to different nations. This system furnishes organizations with the chance to advertise their administration or item to potential clients crossing crosswise over more prominent separations. Concerning overall current occasions, individuals transfer recordings to the Internet with the end goal of diversion, data, or influence. A few recordings induce discussion, and individuals over the globe can voice their assessments on the issue, which may repudiate societal standards and generalizations. Twitter is a type of online networking that enables individuals to impart data through microblogging. Individuals utilize microblogging to "discuss their everyday exercises and to look for or share data" (Java et al., 2007). Twitter is a long range informal communication site made in 2006 to transfer ongoing data to clients. "The stage was roused by maker Tim Dorsey's presentation of a SMS-based idea that permitted individuals from his then-organization, Odeo, to watch each other. The name 'Twitter'… is utilized to portray a short blasted of irrelevant data" (Georgetown University, 2010). Many individuals take after companions, big names, and artists on this site in which they feel associated and create acknowledgment for Sawyer 6 the activities and sentiments of others. Twitter has affected intercultural discourse in light of the fact that numerous individuals worldwide are centered around the individual existences of others and have the craving for association what's more, information of occasions. This case of online networking has abbreviated the ties of separation into knowing precisely what somebody is managing without physically correspondence up close and personal with someone else.

The average Facebook user has 229 friends, and nearly half of the user’s social network is a part of their Facebook world (Hampton et al., 2011). This means that many people in networks offline are also present in Facebook, including friends, neighbors, classmates, coworkers, and family. Therefore, the real-world ramifications of Facebook disclosures are important. Although Facebook can bring us together and give us a sense of belonging, there may also be harmful effects of self-disclosure. The purpose of this study is to determine the predictors of selfdisclosive behavior on Facebook. Doing so would not only reveal a clearer picture of the social environment of Facebook, but would also allow scholars to predict the population most at-risk for highly disclosive and potentially damaging Facebook self-disclosure. Additionally, understanding predictors of self-disclosive behavior may reveal those users who are most likely to benefit from increasingly intimate relationships online.

Toward that end, a review of uses and gratifications theory will be provided as it applies to disclosiveness on Facebook, followed by a study testing the predictors of disclosive behavior on Facebook Self-disclosure on Facebook According to research by the Pew Internet and American Life Project (Smith, 2011), American adults say they are drawn to social media sites such as Facebook to maintain contact with friends and family, as well as to re-establish connections with old friends. It is not surprising, then, that Facebook is characterized by high amounts of self-disclosure because it is well-established that self-disclosure is a crucial element in relationship development (e.g., Altman & Taylor, 1973). The characteristics of Facebook encourage such self-disclosure (Mazer, Murphy, & Simonds, 2007). Facebook’s status update box asks ‘‘what’s on your mind,’’ prompting users to disclose information. The social networking site has a user-friendly platform that allows for easy access to picture posting, status updates, and other web content to be shared with one’s network in both web and mobile formats. While Facebook functions as an outlet for disclosure, aspects of the internet as a medium encourage increasing amounts of personal self-disclosure. For example, social information processing theory explains that users can adapt their verbal cues to accommodate the largely text-based environment of computer-mediated communication (Walther, 1992). Additionally, the increased amount, depth, and breadth of self-disclosure is one way that Facebook users can express affinity to compensate for the largely textual nature of the online environment (Walther, 1992). Schumaker and Van Der Heide (2011) argued that self-disclosure is one vehicle that Facebook users may employ to express emotions when richer nonverbal communication channels are not present. Along with the lack of nonverbal cues, the asynchronous nature of most Facebook activity can cause a person to self-disclose intimate information (Suler, 2004; Walther, 1996).

LinkedIn is an interpersonal organization committed to experts and is engaged on business connections and cooperation. It has more than 364 million individuals in more than 200 nations. LinkedIn was propelled on May 5, 2003. Its authors are Reid Hoffman, Allen Blue, Konstantin Guericke, Eric Ly, and). LinkedIn is utilized to manufacture mindfulness and pick up referrals (Kietzmann et al. 2011; Mas-Bleda et al. 2014). It is exceptionally well known among scouts and employment searchers. This stage is utilized to discover employments, prescribe others in the system, and get suggestions from others. LinkedIn enables clients to fill in data, which incorporates genius record outline, involvement, volunteer understanding and causes, ventures, dialects, confirmations, distributions, instruction, exchange posts also, remarks, proposals, embraced aptitudes and ability, interests, respects and honors, and contact data. An appropriately rounded out profile gives data about one's occupation title, detail work history, business achievements, and where they were instructed. On the profile, individual can likewise exhibit a picture (photograph). There are additionally introduced the proposals from others. Individuals can join gatherings, particularly those offering employments, enrollment, also, business bargains. LinkedIn empowers to share Amazon book-perusing records, slide introductions, archives, travel schedules, furthermore, blog passages.

LinkedIn discovers individuals in view of an assortment of criteria for case: by characterizing the particular business, the extent of the organization, the position level, and the gatherings of which a specific individual is a part (Bradbury 2011). LinkedIn is giving a considerable measure of chances for individuals who are look Online social networking sites (SNS) have tried to re-create face-to-face interactions on the web by allowing people to interact publicly or privately. Many people use social media as a way to stay in contact, while others use the medium as a way to develop new connections. A benefit of social networking websites is that they allow people to develop or maintain relationships with individuals who may not be close to themselves geographically. When it comes to location, social networking websites allow families, couples, and friends to stay connected using a simple click of a button.

Blogging sites have been in the increase in the recent past. They enable people to freely express themselves by writing about the issues which they feel are pertinent to the society. The blogging sites have given rise to citizens who are concerned about the welfare of their different countries (Guta, 2015). As a result, this has led to prudence in management of the financial resources. It also enables the bloggers to sharpen their writing skills. People who wish to address various issues in the society resolve to use this medium to make their grievances heard.

Works Cited

Bazarova, N. N. (2014). Self‐disclosure in social media: Extending the functional approach to disclosure motivations and characteristics on social network sites. Journal of Communication, 64(4), 635-657.

Bradbury. (2016). Impression Management in Social Media: The Example of LinkedIn. Management (18544223), 11(3).

Carlisle, J. E. (2016). s social media changing how we understand political engagement? An analysis of Facebook and the 2016presidential election. Political Research Quarterly, 66(4), 883-895.

Cheung, C. L. (2015). Self-disclosure in social networking sites: the role of perceived cost, perceived benefits and social influence. nternet Research, 25(2), 279-299.

Guta, H. &. (2015). Veiling and blogging: social media as sites of identity negotiation and expression among Saudi women. Journal of International Women's Studies, 16(2), 115.

Hollenbaugh, E. E. (2004). Facebook self-disclosure: Examining the role of traits, social cohesion, and motives. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 50-58.

Hollenbaugh, E. E. (2014). Facebook self-disclosure: Examining the role of traits, social cohesion, and motives. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 50-58.

Marichal, J. (2016). Facebook Democracy: The architecture of disclosure and the threat to public life. Routledge.

Ostrow, L. P. (2017). Web-based survey data collection with peer support and advocacy organizations: implications of participatory methods. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action, 11(1), 45-52.

Paliszkiewicz, J. &.-S. (2016). Impression Management in Social Media: The Example of LinkedIn. Management (18544223), 11(3).

Utz, S. (2015). The function of self-disclosure on social network sites: Not only intimate, but also positive and entertaining self-disclosures increase the feeling of connection. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 1-10.

Walther, J. B. (n.d.). Computer-mediated communication and the reduction of prejudice: A controlled longitudinal field experiment among Jews and Arabs in Israel. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 550-558.

March 10, 2023


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