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It has been claimed that unemployment will continue to be a problem for various nations. In comparison to the first and second world nations, the third world countries have been more severely impacted by the threat. The rate of work has been completely dependent on how well a nation's economy is doing. The quantity of income tax based on the counties' economic needs is determined by the income from the employed population. The pace of technical change is one of the key factors that has impacted the employment rate in various nations. Technology has either brought about employment to the specialised professionals or brought about
unemployment to others. Artificial intelligence (AI) which is the ability of the computers or the computer controlled systems like robots to function in place of human resource (Fu, K. n.p.). Different countries have been using the computer systems and the computers in performing their functions in place of human resources. The idea of AI is used in the developmental projects which are endowed with the intellectual processes features of human beings, e.g. the ability to reason, generalize issues, and learning from the past experiences. Since the introduction of the digital computer era in the 1940s, there has been a demonstration that the computers could have some programmes which are designed to carry out different tasks which are generally complex, e.g. the discovery of the mathematical theorems or even chess play. There are also specific programs which are made to conform to human flexibility in a wider domain or functions which require daily programs which have attained certain professionals of doing special functions (Future of Life institute n.p.). Different companies and countries have been finding a way to simplify their work by using the artificial intelligence ways, while other states and countries have been viewing this as a way of creating more unemployment rates in their countries. The developing countries have been finding it rough to accommodate the Artificial intelligence technology in their industry as it will lead to high rate of unemployment which they are also trying to fight. We can’t ignore the fact that the main reason why unemployment rates are very high is basically the fact that computer technologies came to replace the manual manpower in the companies.
The major advancement’s associated with the artificial intelligence is the simplicity of the work and function of any company and the industry at large. The artificial intelligence has been made different advancement in simplifying work and making efficient the work of thereof the companies. Different functions have been heightened making it easy for the companies to produce more and goods of high quality. The paper seeks to analyse the artificial intelligence a factor which is considered in the by different countries but criticized for unemployment. The thesis statement is; artificial intelligence is fast taking control of the companies, the risk to the success of robots and the ultimate effect to the society which has posed a threat to the legal aspect of different companies.
Origin and innovation of artificial intelligence
The artificial intelligence (AI) started antiquity accompanied with different myths, narratives, and different rumours of personal beings which are endowed with the intelligence or consciousness by the masters of craftsmen such as Pamela McCorduck writes. It started as a with them, ‘‘an ancient wish to forge the gods.’’ The fruits of the modern AI were started to thrive by the classical philosophers who had the attempt to have a description of the processes in the human thinking as the mechanical manipulations of the available symbols. The work brought about the programmable digital computers in the 1940s which is a machine that is based on the abstracts ease in solving mathematics. The device and the ideas which followed it brought about the inspiration of the handful of different scientists to start serious discussions on the probability of building the electronic brains. The AI system study was founded in a workshop which was held in Dartmouth College in the 1956 summer season. The in-attendance in the workshop could eventually join the system to become leaders in the AI study in the world for several decades. Many of them had made the prediction to the machine system which was equated to human beings in the levels of intelligence in different generations where they were granted millions of dollars in making the visions coming true. It was obvious that they could grossly have an underestimation of the difficulty in the due projects, due the computer hardware constraints. In 1973 in trying to have a response to the critics one of the participants James Lighthill and the ongoing pressures from the state congress in the USA and the governments from the British which stopped the funding undirected the research into the artificial intelligence. The difficulty period which followed could be followed renaming it to, ‘‘AI winter.’’ For about 7 years one of the visionary initiatives from a Japanese origin inspired the governments and the companies in providing the AI with dollars in billions, by the late 1980s by the investors which later became the disillusioned by the absenteeism in the of the required computer powers/hardware but later took back the funding. The investments and the interests in the AI succeed in the start of the 21st century as the machines learning became successful in applications to different issues in the academic and the industries by the fact of the presence of the computer hardware which was powerful. In the previous ‘‘AI summers,’’ different observers like Ray Kurzweil had made the prediction of the imminent arrivals in the general artificial intelligence, which was a machine with a level of intellectual capacities which exceeded the capabilities of the human beings.
Major Predicted Changes in Artificial Intelligence
Time-Saving and Data Processing
Data processing was one of the major issues which were affected different companies. Human beings could not cover the work which was increasing all days in the years. The time spent in the working different functions could have taken the least time due to the manual nature. The manual filling was a just a task which could not be completed within the stipulated time. If you think you have thought about the issues enough then you are a long way to go if you have not thought of the time an accountant would have taken to compute for multinational companies like Coca-Cola. How many accountants could the company employees make the company has completed all the functions of the multinational company? How much time would the accountants require to complete the consolidation work to end up in a consolidated financial statement? When you have a deep thought on the time-saving in processing data on then you have the real picture of the matters which have been solved by the artificial intelligence (Future of Life institute n.p.). Artificial intelligence has come in the gap to solve the issues at hand in different companies and the industries. Coca-Cola Company just to use it as an example, was once a company which was always late in releasing the fiscal year. The company had to take more than one month in the sole duty of preparing the fiscal year financial statements (Future of Life institute n.p.).
The data processing in the other departments in the company were not such effective in the manual system which took much for the company to complete the required function in the stipulated time. The time for the attaining the targets was set but attaining it was still a menace and a riddle which could have taken time before it could be reached. The time frame for the manual system was a bit longer and much inconvenient at times when the company could not attain the objectives. The act created a room for improvement which had to have the input of different minds in solving different issues for the company. The artificial intelligence of the coca cola company and other companies were all on the list of companies which first used the system to transform the functionality. Due to the effective use of the computers the systems allowed all the functions to be done effectively and to be completed in time making it easy for the company to set targets which were in short-term achieved. The company production changed high which meant that the company returns were all positive and increased from the previous manual system.
A computer could be easily automated and made to perform duties at ease without the control of human beings. The companies have the ability to perform all the tasks which are programmed in it within the stipulated period of time. Taking, for example, the finance department of any multinational company, the system has been put in place to ensure all the functions are integrated in accordance to how all of them are related to each other (Kushmerick, N. S. 23). The functions of the finance department like the cashiers work, accounting work, and budgeting could be integrated where the software in the computers can give a single feedback on all this data as it is programmed (Scott Gerber. N.p.). Programming helps the computer to solve different issues and accommodate several functions at a go or in the compressed period of time. One computer has the ability to perform different functions which could be done by a number of human beings in the past days (Scott Gerber. N.p). The manpower required in the current days is programming and the one to control the system in its working which means that the company will be relieved the burden of the increased human resource. The manual system meant that the companies would have gone as far as having more than 70% of the expenses on salaries which lowered the returns for the company. With the artificial intelligence, the companies have the capability of reducing the workmanship as well as the time taken in performing different functions.
Computers are fitted with programs which run all the time even if the computer is switched off which means that the work of the companies is still moving forward anytime. The act has therefore transformed different companies to 24 hour production time (Scott Gerber. n.p.). The 24 hour production time for the companies has helped all multinational and other companies produce more both in the daytime and at night. The processing and the production capacity of the companies have therefore increased to the later which has helped the companies to achieve their set production targets.
Accuracy of processing
Data in the manual system was full of human errors and inaccuracy. The artificial intelligence came in to mend the gap and simplify things further. The system has helped to make accurate data and show the real picture in the matters, processing and the transaction in the company. With the use of the computers, there are no or very few chances of having data processing errors (Scott Gerber. n.p.). The system is made in such a way that errors could only occur if the systems raw data has been entered with errors. Garbage in Garbage out has been a phrase which has been used to show if the computer has been filled with errors then the errors will still be transformed results but on the other hand if the data entered in the system lacks errors there are chances that there could be no error in the outcome.
Increased demand for skilled labour
In the past years long before the artificial intelligence, the technical staff in an organization composed of a large number of the company employees. The work was mainly manual and therefore no specialised skills in basics of modern computer were required (Scott Gerber. n.p.). In the current days, the global functioning in the industries has changed where the number of employees in the organization has increased on the side of the specialised computer training (Rockwell Anyoha, n.p.). Companies have been hiring more of computer professionals who have a deep understating of the artificial intelligence system (Rockwell Anyoha, n.p.). The technicians include software developers, computer controllers, and maintenance among others. The act of employment of the professional in this area among others has increased the employment of the professionals while relieving duties to the unskilled employees. The professionals have been getting working opportunities in the companies which require their services in the artificial intelligence. Almost every company has been specifying that all the professionals employed in the company should have a basic understanding and computer skills.
Artificial Intelligence and Job Market
Robots and machines in the job market
The current job market has the basic requirements of the computer literacy which means that all the professionals employed by the company should have at least basic computer knowledge. Although the effects of the artificial intelligence have been positive the ultimate result to the human resource has been tending to the negative. As a result of the computer systems introduction in different companies, many employees were laid off. It is believed that computer could replace about 20 employees (Connie Chan n.p.). It means that the employees who were all employed could finally lose their jobs leaving on the computer literate employees. The computer use of robots which is one of the devices which are compatible with the computer. One robot can work for different functions which means that in case a robot is used in a firm more than 100 employees will be laid off (Connie Chan n.p.). Calculations in the stores were ones a function of human resource in the manual system which has now changed to a computer-assisted automation system for different companies. The companies have been linking their package and store records to the computer systems from production which ensures that records are held in the computer.
The truck drivers are running at a risk of being laid off in the recent future if the trend of the automation of the trucks is heightened. The truck manufacturers have developed trucks which are free from drivers. It means that the truck drivers will soon have no place to work if the companies decide to use the driverless trucks. The act has been helping to lay off different truck drivers from different companies creating room for unemployment for drivers with special truck driving licences.
Tort law on artificial intelligence
Law professionals have been trying to fake legal jurisdiction on common law which will cover the civil wrong on artificial intelligence. As a matter of common law interpretation, an entity should not pass have an act which will risk, damage or harm the other person. Any party who/which does this will have to be liable to a tortious act and therefore a tortfeasor. Through this law, companies should not do any action which will be literary damage or harm the other party e.g. the use of robots in the developing companies leads to high levels of unemployment. The question for the day is, should the companies be liable for their acts of using the artificial intelligence in their working? The fact is that companies owe a duty of responsibility to the employees and therefore could not lay off employees with the aim of punishing them.
Companies have a duty of care to the consumers. The consumers are covered by any loss which is incurred as a result of any product they sell. A different product is covered using warranty which covers the product on any harm or malicious behaviour in the period covered by the warranty. If a company, therefore, sells a product which ends up harming or getting malfunctioned. Tesla Company comes to solve the self-driving crash which was meant to solve the issue of self-driving cars. The company is bound by law not to have such models of cars in the countries where they cannot be sustained. The cars are tried and should be approved to run in different countries due to their safety of use. The cars my lender different people unemployed after their introduction as many have been relying on drivers. The law binds the company use of this type of vehicles to use in the developing world.
Effects to the Society
The use of artificial intelligence as a mode of solving organizational issues has had enough praise from the company inside but a tainting image from the outside. The society has not been welcoming the idea of artificial intelligence. Absolute neglect of the idea has been witnessed in the developing countries at a higher rate than the developed countries. The citizens of the developing nations have been viewing the idea of artificial intelligence as a snatch to their employment and the first class cause of unemployment. The idea of artificial intelligence has also been associated with the development of machinery and weapons which harm the society in return. The computers are known to be the controlling site for different weapons which kills and destroys property for the society. If the computers are in the wrong hands the damage is too high, e.g. if the computer is used by the hackers then the work of the maybe malicious to both the company and the society at large.
Legal Cases and Articles
Ashley Madison Customer data security breach litigation
Hackers and the other malicious users have been using the computers as a tool to instigate their malicious acts. Ashley Madison is an example of a company which has suffered a brow on the security breach (United States District Court Eastern District of Missouri Eastern Division, 2017). The malicious users used the name of the company to make illegal extort funds from the male customers to make different purchases (United States District Court Eastern District of Missouri Eastern Division, n.p.). The company website used the imitation of beautiful ladies to lure the male counterparts to make purchases of their products. The act could be as well be described as one of the uses of false impotence by using artificial intelligence to make the customers make their purchases.
Big Data empowerment and machine learning at scale
We might have dwelled on the disadvantages of the artificial intelligence forgetting the fact that it is helpful for keeping records. Big data is an idea which came from holding more data by the companies on the computers (United States District Court Eastern District of Missouri Eastern Division, n.p.). The big data idea is simply an idea which has made it effective in data storage and maintenance of information. The act has simplified work and reduced the filing system in different sectors and companies like the banks among others.
All in all, artificial intelligence is fast taking control of the companies, the risk to the success of robots and the ultimate effect to the society which has posed a threat to the legal aspect of different companies. As discussed above companies have been kept in the running battles due to the improvising of the artificial intelligence. Work has been made efficient by the artificial intelligence although there exist different side effects. Unemployment rates have been increasing in different countries as a result of company’s application of the artificial intelligence systems. The society has had more goods from the system but with almost high setbacks from the application of the artificial intelligence.
Connie Chan. 5 Industries Being Most Affected By Artificial Intelligence. Retrieved
from: https://www.fowcommunity.com/blog/future-work/5-industries-being-most-affected-artificial-intelligence. N.d. Accessed on 1st Dec 2017.
Future of Life institute. Benefits and Risks of artificial intelligence. Retrieved from:
https://futureoflife.org/background/benefits-risks-of-artificial-intelligence/. N.d. Accessed on 1st Dec 2017.
Rockwell Anyoha, Can Machines think. Retrieved from:
http://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2017/history-artificial-intelligence/. N.d. Accessed from 1st Dec 2017.
Scott Gerber. 13 Ways AI will change your life. Retrieved from:
https://thenextweb.com/artificial-intelligence/2017/03/03/13-ways-ai-will-change-life/https://medium.com/@lolatravel/the-benefits-and-risks-of-artificial-intelligence-707ed58a9740. 2017. Accessed 1st Dec 2017.
United States District Court Eastern District of Missouri Eastern Division. Ashley Madison Customer Data Security Breach Litigation. Retrieved from: http://www.almcms.com/contrib/content/uploads/sites/292/2017/07/AshleyMadison-settlement-memo-for-approval.pdf. (2017). Accessed on 1st Dec 2017.
Fu, K. (n.d.). "Learning control systems and intelligent control systems: An intersection of artificial intelligence and automatic control." IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 16.1 (1971): 70-72.
Kushmerick, N. S. (n.d.). "An algorithm for probabilistic planning." Artificial Intelligence 76.1 (1995): 239-286.
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