the activity of enzyme

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An enzyme: A Catalyst for Chemical Reactions

An enzyme is an organic molecule composed of proteins that has the basic function of speeding up and controlling the rate of chemical reactions without being depleted in the body. Enzymes are classified into three types: metabolic, food, and digestive. Enzymes play a critical role in reducing the amount of activation energy in a reaction. They have active sites where a single or several substrates may bind to catalyze a reaction. The substrates are either broken down into a variety of components or combined to form a single molecule. Alternatively, the layer may be swapped. Several factors affect the rate at which an enzyme will catalyze a reaction: temperature, pH, enzyme and substrate concentration, and enzyme inhibitors (Rodrigues et al. 6290).

The Impact of Temperature on Enzyme Activity

Temperature, to begin with, affects enzyme activity in such a way that a particular enzyme will function best at an optimum temperature. Enzyme activity will then increase gradually as the temperature rise. Further, rise in temperature results in decline in the rate of enzyme activity. The protean nature of enzymes makes them denature in high temperature.

The Influence of pH on Enzyme Activity

The effect of pH on enzyme activity is relatively similar to that of temperature. There is an optimum pH at which enzymes work, maintaining this pH would result in high-speed enzyme activity. Deviation from the optimum, either towards acidity or alkalinity, results in a reduced rate of enzyme action.

The Role of Enzyme and Substrate Concentration

The rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions is directly related to the amount of enzyme concentration (Rodrigues et al. 6290). A higher concentration of the enzyme results in a higher rate of reaction to a certain point where all the active sites have substrate. The same applies to the substrate concentration; the rate will increase till no more can bind to the enzyme.

The Influence of Enzyme Inhibitors

Enzyme inhibitors are substances which compete for binding sites with the substrate (Rodrigues et al. 6290). They have the same structure but different function as the enzymes which they inhibit. Once bound to the active site of the substrate, the enzyme(s) cannot function. The higher the number of inhibitors in a reaction, the slower the response.

Work cited

Rodrigues, Rafael C., et al. "Modifying enzyme activity and selectivity by immobilization." Chemical Society Reviews 42.15 (2013): 6290-6307.

January 05, 2023



Biology Myself Chemistry

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