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The human body's composition is very complicated. Understanding the human body function is important for biologists and others working in the medical profession. As a result, the human body composition offers an intriguing biology subject worth investigating. The role and configuration of the eleven structures located in the human body were discussed in this article. The article discussed the interaction between the musculoskeletal and nervous systems, as well as the connection between the lymphatic and circulatory systems.
A human body is made up of eleven distinct but interconnected structures. The system includes muscular, respiratory, skeletal, nervous, immune, reproductive, excretory, integumentary, and endocrine systems (Sherwood & Lauralee p. 45). For a human being to survive normally, this body system must cooperate and work together, that is human survival depends on the ability of these body parts to function in inclusively.
The human body can stand due to the skeletal system; it provides the structure and strength of the human body. The skeletal is the factory of the blood cell as well as the store for the minerals that other body organs requires to function normally (Sherwood & Lauralee p. 46). Also, it provides protection to the body organs, which are delicate. Two hundred and six bones forming up the skeletal are linked to tendons, muscles, and ligament. The body bones connections are through a softer cushion-like material, cartilage that provides protections to the jointed areas. The controller of the human body movement is the muscular system (Adams & Amy p. 168). These muscular are connected to bones by tendons. For the body movement to occur, the nervous system stimulates the muscles causing contraction and relaxation of the muscle, which in turn trigger movement of the bones connected to them. Numerous involuntary muscles guarantee the circulatory and respiratory systems continuous relaxation and contraction of the lungs and the heart that ensures circulation of gasses and blood into the entire body (Adams & Amy p. 169). (The heart is the central organ circulatory system that is mandated to pumping blood through the vein, the capillaries, and the arteries to parts of the body. Through the blood circulation, the circulatory system is responsible for the delivery and provision of the oxygen and minerals to the human body cells and at the same time removing waste materials from the body (Sherwood & Lauralee p. 49). The circulation process also helps in the movements of the white blood cell.
The immune system is made up of the lymphatic organs such as the skin, thymus and the spleen, and all of them are mandated with the protection of the human body against the attacks from harmful pathogens (Adams & Amy p. 140). The respiratory system, as well as the circulatory system, work closely with each other through their interconnection to ensure fresh oxygen is available to the body via the alveoli of the lungs (Sherwood & Lauralee p. 52). There is a close connection between the respiratory system and the excretory system in that it is responsible for the excretion of the carbon dioxide as well as other waste gasses via exhalation. In addition to these harmful gasses, the excretory system gets rid of both the liquid and the solid waste from the body. The system is made up of numerous special tissues in addition to the bladder, rectum, large intestine, skin, lungs, and kidneys (Sherwood & Lauralee p. 55).
The body requires energy to function. Chemical and physical breakdown of food to form energy needed by the body is a function of the digestive system. The breakdown begun in the mouth where teeth and saliva do much of the work before the tongue via the oesophagus passes the food to the stomach and small intestine for digestion. The large intestine, the liver, and the pancreas get involve at this stage by producing the digestive enzymes, bile and participates in the nutrients processing (Adams & Amy p. 143).
The nervous system is the messenger. It sends the messages to the brain forth and back via the neurons. The nervous system is the controller of the bodily functions. It sends electrochemical signals via neural network system (Bean p. 149). The endocrine acts as the communication network and is using hormones as the chemical messengers that travel thru the bloodstream.
The endocrine system acts as a communication network but uses hormones as chemical (Adams & Amy p. 165). The hormones usually have a specified targeted organs and the signal they carry at any one time has the specific instruction of starting or stopping a specific function. Lastly, the productive system has the mandate to produce children by producing the productive hormones that develop the body to sexual maturity (Adams & Amy p. 166).
Relationship between Musculoskeletal and the Nervous System
Muscle is a contractile tissue histologically separated into three main types. The types are, the skeletal or striated muscle being under direct control of the nervous system, cardiac muscle, which is a specialist form of striated muscle and is within the heart, and lastly visceral or the smooth muscle that is not controlled directly via nervous (Bean p. 160). The smooth muscle is embedded in the walls of the alimentary tracks, walls of the blood vessels as well as the erector pili. These smooth muscles are usually in the form of a flat sheet and usually form a longitudinal and circular layer. They can also be set sphincter to control the passage of the substances via a tube. For instance, the anus muscles are an example of the smooth muscle. On the other hand, skeletal muscles are usually connected to isolated bones through flesh, aponeurosis, or tendons links (Bean p. 159).
The nervous system carries out the action of the muscle control (Bean p. 153). The link between the muscle and the nervous usually occur thru chemical stimulus passed by motor end plates, which gives instruction to muscles to contract. The same signal passes via tendons thru a specific receptor capable of measuring stretch of the tendon (Sherwood & Lauralee p. 53). Afferents are messages from the nerves when the message is to a specific tissue, however when the message is to the brain and spinal cord it is called afferent. Due to that, the nervous system is made of two distinct but combined systems, which includes the peripheral and the central nervous systems assigned to the spinal cord and the brain respectively (Bean p. 157). The neural network has twelve pairs of the head nerves linked to the brain and thirty-one pairs spinal nerves joined to the spinal cord. Sensory nerves transfer the messages from the receptors in the body to the central nervous system. On the other hand, motoric nerves pass messages from the CNS to the muscle fibers. As a result, the majority of these nerves have the ability to carry both afferent and efferent cell processes (Bean p. 156).
Adams, Amy. The Muscular System. Greenwood P, 2004, pp. 123-234.
Bean, B. P. The action potential in mammalian central neurons. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, (2007). 8(6), 451-465
Sherwood, Lauralee. Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems. 2016, pp. 43-56.
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