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Diabetes is a metabolic disorder whereby the blood sugar levels are very high. It can be caused by the type of foods a person takes. The primary source of energy to be utilized by the body is blood glucose and determines the blood sugar level. There are type one and type two diabetes.
Food sugars along with carbohydrates are broken down by digestive juices into glucose to be utilized by the body as a source of energy. The pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that regulates the amount of blood glucose. In cases of excess glucose, insulin stimulates the absorption of glucose from the blood and also stimulates the liver to store the excess blood glucose in the form of glycogen.
The hormones that determine blood sugar levels are epinephrine, glucagon, cortisol, and norepinephrine. Stress stimulates the production of some of these hormones. Type 1 diabetes is initiated by an autoimmune condition where the beta cells are attacked. Beta cells are located in the pancreas and secrete Insulin. The secretion leads to the deficiency of insulin. The type two (2) diabetes is a condition brought about by a relative insulin deficiency or the body failing to use up the insulin leading to the high amount of glucose in the blood (Ananya, 2016).
Although there exists no specific cause of diabetes, a bacterial or viral infection, an unidentified autoimmune reaction-causing component and chemical toxins in food can trigger the reactions. In other times, the underlying genetic disposition can be a cause for type 1 diabetes. The causations of type 2 diabetes are multifactorial meaning that there can be an existence of more than one cause (Ananya, 2016). The most overwhelming cause is family history. Bad diet, sedentary lifestyles, obesity, and increase in age are some of the factors that can increase the risks of type two diabetes development. Other minor risks factors are illness and pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is another kind of diabetes that develops in women during pregnancy, and in most cases, this condition goes away after the pregnancy. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes and monogenic diabetes are the others types of diabetes. However, they are less frequent compared to the type one and two diabetes.
Primary prevention of the type 2 diabetes could include avoidance of obesity, restriction of the calorie intake and increased exercises (Ruediger, 2017). Insulin resistance is also contributed by smoking. Therefore quitting smoking for smokers is effective in reducing the chances of diabetes. Since diabetes can be caused by diabetic family history, its advisable to visit a health care provider and if one is confirmed to be at high risk, medicines are prescribed and taken to reduce the risks. Secondary prevention is a two-step process involving screening of the population and intervention for those found to have dysglycaemia, after evidence identification. The tertiary prevention level applies to those already having the condition during the early potentially reversible stages (Ruediger, 2017). This prevention can be achieved efficiently through loss of weight. The prevention shows that even after a lot of time living with hyperglycemia, obesity-related diabetes is reversible.
Primary prevention of type 1 diabetes must involve dietary interventions to individuals with no autoimmunity signs, with the aim of interrupting any environmental type diabetes triggers. Currently, type 2 diabetes’ secondary preventions are still under evaluation, and it involves the use of benign interventions.
The same prevention strategies are taken for gestational diabetes in pregnant women. However, after the delivery, the mothers are asked to visit health care centers for post-delivery follow-up for both the mother and the infant.
Ananya Mandal (2016). Diabetes Pathophysiology: News medical life sciences. Retrieved from: https://www.news-medical.net/health/Diabetes-Pathophysiology.aspx
Ruediger Landgraf (2017). Prevention of diabetes. The Living Textbook of Diabetes. Retrieved from: https://www.diapedia.org/type-2-diabetes-mellitus/31040851213/prevention-of-type-2-diabetes
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