utility and survey planning

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The rapid and sustained growth in population has put a significant pressure on most natural capital. One of these natural resources that is becoming exceedingly scarce as the world's population grows is land. As one of the most important tools in any environment, space or land is used not only for development, but also as a parking lot for the organization's clients, administrators, and other stakeholders. Traditionally, car parks for travelers and employees in cities and organisations have been located adjacent to houses or under trees.However, today, many organizations and cities or towns are increasingly building underground car parks due to limited space and the need to accommodate more the increasing number of vehicles. Kingston University is no exception. The university is planning to build an underground car pack beneath the John Galsworthy Building to cater for the parking needs of increased number of teachers, lecturers, students and general visitors.

The plan will involve constructing an approach road that ramps down to an entrance about 10 meters from the building and 3 meter below the level of the present car park. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of a survey of the site map, describe the methodology to be used during the survey process and perform a risk assessment of the site to determine the potential health and safety issues associated with the project. Moreover, the paper describes specification and planning of the survey as well provides the required site map to the client before finally suggesting one possible option for the car park access road that will need the minimum volume of soil to be excavated.


Each of the exercises required relevant data and information on which the findings and recommendations were based. The data and information was collected from parking facilities as well as through questionnaire surveys, interview surveys, field count surveys and field observations of different factors at the proposed construction site. The results from these data collection methodologies were then used to quantify the present parking facility at the university as well as to characterize the demand and need for constructing the proposed underground parking. The surveys that were used in each of the exercises to obtain the required information and data included inventory survey, survey of parking characteristics and the stated preference survey.

The inventory survey involved the survey team obtaining information about the inventory of the existing parking facilities at the university before the actual study commenced. Consultants were then used to enhance the information through detailed surveys, site observations and confirmation with the set guidelines and relevant authorities. In the survey of the parking characteristics, the parking behaviors and habits by different drivers in the existing car park facility were assessed to determine the appropriate plan and design of the proposed underground parking. The survey, which involved sending questionnaires to the university_x0092_s internal operations and planning department as well as to drivers who parked in the present car park routinely identified the possible maximum demand for parking in the new facility through which were able update the size requirements.

Additionally, the team conducted a stated preference survey to obtain more information about the factors that influenced the parking decisions and behaviors by motorists. The elements that were considered in the survey included convenience, cost, access time to the car park and effective land-use. The surveys in the practical were conducted on 31st March 2017 in two sessions. The first sessions was undertaken from 9 am to 12 pm and the second session 2 pm to 4 pm. To ensure validity of the data obtained from the survey, the practical involved six group members. Of the six members, two members undertook the inventory survey, two members conducted the survey of the parking characteristics and the remaining performed the stated preference survey. After the survey members exchanged their findings for further assessment for relevance and validity. Finally, a survey of basic weather conditions involved observation of the sunshine, wind direction and rainfall patterns at the university for three days. However, the team obtained detailed information on weather conditions of the area by contacting a local weather station.

Risk Assessment

During the risk assessment, the survey team visited the proposed construction site and the university_x0092_s safety and hazards department to identify the potential risks and harm that the underground park could cause to people. The survey also involved visiting and assessing the proposed route to the car park as well as consulting safety representatives to learn of the risks and hazards that pedestrians and drivers will potentially be exposed to. Additionally, during the risk assessment, the team assessed the university_x0092_s accident book to learn of the previous incidents of accidents at the present car park as well as their causes.

Accordingly, the survey team was able to predict how accidents might occur at the new underground parking, who could potentially get harmed. Based on the assessed risks, the team recommended measures that need to be taken mitigate incidents of accidents at the facility, who should take the measures and the time the measures should be put in place. The major potential safety issues at the proposed underground car park are safety, efficient circulation and security. If not considered during the car park_x0092_s construction, these risks will not only harm drivers who park in the car park, but may also result to the loss of their cars to criminals.

Based on the results of the survey, the team suggested various controls that the university and the project team at the university should consider in the design and construction of the car park to improve its safety and security. During planning and layout, the design team should first consider the number of vehicles that the park will accommodate as well as the vehicle flow rates and compare the number with available space. Because the risk assessment identifies insecurity or crime as one of the major risk issues, the controls necessary to improve security and protect cars at the underground car park include surveillance through the use of CCTV and efficient lighting levels, efficient access control, territorial reinforcement and space management. On the other hand controls to improve mitigate the identified safety issues and prevent potential harm should include;

Even lighting to eliminate shadows.

Panic alarms to improve accessibility of attendants.

Efficient access control system.

Defining pedestrian routes.

Ensuring that entry and exit to and from the park are separate but close to each other.

Make the signage more colored, clear and visible to all drivers entering and leaving the park.

Make the passage as short as possible.

Ensuring 24 hour surveillance of the car park using CCTVs (Pike, Jolly, Pundsack, Stewart & Whapples, 2011)

Survey Planning

Because the purpose of this survey is to assess the site map or area for the construction of the proposed underground car park, it will include detailed information of the area through the specification guidance forms as well as the issues or difficulties involved in carrying out the survey. Like in other surveys, the surveying planning of the site map involved brainstorming about the aim of the survey, goals and objectives identification, and the formulation of questions to be used in obtaining relevant data. Because the purpose of the survey and thus problem identification was already identified when the university (client) approached the survey team, the team headed directly to deciding on the participants and target groups. The target group for the survey were drivers with parking needs, the site where the underground car was to be constructed and the aggregate university population that required safe and amble parking space.

The next step was deciding on how the selected target group and of university population especially the drivers segment will be reached. Because most of the drivers were decentralized, the team used e-mails and online survey forms to obtain information on their anticipations of the new car park and the challenges they faced when using the present car park. However, information about the site_x0092_s weather, space, safety issues, accessibility and other factors relevant to the design of the car park was obtained by visiting the site, which allowed the team to obtain first-hand data. To ensure that the survey remained as concise and precise as possible to obtain relevant results, the survey team limited the scope of the survey by breaking its purpose into various blocks of survey questions. Limiting the survey scope was also was important to increase the response from the target groups. Finally, the team formulated a set of survey questions that provided informed and goal-directed results from concerning the design and construction of the underground car park.

Table 1: Section 1 of the specification guidance forms

Date: 31/03/17. Location: Rear Car Park- Kingston University Penrhyn Road. Page: 1 Set up Station: B. Station Level: - Height of Instrument (h): 1.550 Sight Station: A. Horizontal Angle to sight Station (Zero?): Yes Horizontal angle Horizontal Distance (D) Vertical Distance (V) Pole Length (m) Reduced Level Remarks/ sketch 00 00 00 13.627 - 1.550 - Sight station at position A 34 42 46 27.026 - 0.221 1.550 - Corner of wall 43 15 09 34.184 - 0.139 1.550 - Wall corner near Red post sign 43 12 55 41.255 - 1.144 1.550 - 1st yellow pole behind wall to left 46 25 41 40.880 - 0.250 1.550 - 3rd yellow pole behind pole to middle 49 53 42 40.622 -0.147 1.550 - 5th yellow pole behind wall to middle 55 26 53 40.532 - 0.105 1.550 - Last yellow pole behind wall 15 03 16 26.935 0.781 2.00 - Edge of bottom step 13 37 22 27.372 0.392 2.00 - Edge of side stairs 21 21 54 26.713 0.329 2.00 - Brown edge of 1st floor 24 14 37 26.457 0.306 2.00 - End of second floor (brown) 26 52 09 24.460 0.457 2.00 - End of furthest corner 26 39 11 24.104 0.347 2.00 - First corner right in front of door

Table 2: Section 3 of the specification guidance forms

Date: 31/03/17. Location: Rear Car Park- Kingston University Penrhyn Road. Page: 3 Set up Station: B. Station Level: - Height of Instrument (h): 1.550 Sight Station: A. Horizontal Angle to sight Station (Zero?): Yes Horizontal angle Horizontal Distance (D) Vertical Distance (V) Pole Length (m) Reduced Level Remarks/ sketch 220 30 51 30.832 - 0.205 1.550 - End of last house 228 16 44 24.593 - 0.222 1.550 - lampost 139 38 42 17.495 - 0.204 1.550 - Start of building next to edge of house 311 44 53 12.336 - 228 1.550 - Middle of fence lamppost 347 12 38 25.384 0.071 1.550 - End of fence right 350 28 43 28.555 0.39 1.550 - Beginning of footpath next to fence 355 36 59 27.696 0.037 1.550 - Corner of wall next to footpath 199 27 57 19.507 0.091 1.450 - Caution speed ramp 5mph 196 59 52 21.711 0.122 1.468 - Ramp pole corner of the building 199 27 36 26.005 0.468 1.800 - Grit bin corner 203 32 28 5.756 -0.017 1.450 - Road stamp next to dropped concrete 200 24 10 13.685 -0.21 1.450 - Stump 2 next to 1st pavement 200 05 55 15.829 -0.016 1.450 - Pavement next to 1st curve 201 18 46 21.475 -0.016 1.450 - Stump three next to pavement

Table 4: Section 4 of the specification guidance forms

Date: 31/03/17. Location: Rear Car Park- Kingston University Penrhyn Road. Page: 4 Set up Station: B. Station Level: - Height of Instrument (h): 1.550 Sight Station: A. Horizontal Angle to sight Station (Zero?): Yes Horizontal angle Horizontal Distance (D) Vertical Distance (V) Pole Length (m) Reduced Level Remarks/ sketch 202 06 39 27.780 -0.037 1.450 - Stump 4 next to pavement 202 12 04 28.761 -.0.018 1.450 - End of pavement (stump 4) 202 42 38 36.109 0.002 1.450 - Stump 5 corner of pavement 199 54 44 36.394 0.250 1.450 - Building edge next to corner pf pavement 202 49 12 38.203 -0.009 1.450 - Pavement curve next to building 51 51 53 6.533 -0.071 1.450 - End of blue container 93 38 17 4.557 0.270 1.450 - Shutters, beginning of pavement

Survey Results.

Hand-drawn scale map produced from the GPS detailing Practical.

Detailed analysis of all practical difficulties encountered, actual and possible errors in the survey

The survey team encountered various challenges and practical difficulties during a survey of the site map. The main difficulty and which has substantial impacts on the final design of the underground parking was taking of measurements. Generally, the survey involved taking a myriad of measurements such as length, angle and distance, which were practically difficult because the measurements were to be as precise as possible. Also, it was very challenging for the team to take measurement of some areas at the site such as stumps and edges because they were irregular.

The other practical difficulty the team encountered during the survey was quantifying the collected data and some measurements. Some of the measurements such as those involving vertical distance were so small that the team could hardly quantify and instead recorded approximations of the measured values. Also, data obtained from some of the target groups was qualitative in nature and was thus difficult for the team to quantify for further analytical or statistical analysis.

Because some of the measurements of smaller distances were based on approximations, the major error in the survey was precision and accuracy. The survey team was convinced that the errors could potentially affect the final design of the underground car park, although the effect were insignificant on its functionality. As a result, the tem recommended a tolerance of +/- 0.005 in the measurements of the vertical distance +/- 0.001 in other measurement values to mitigate the possible effects of errors inherent in the measurements.


Pike, D., Jolly, C.K., Pundsack, M., Stewart, J.N. and Whapples, W., 2011. Design recommendations for multi-storey and underground car parks. Published by the Institution of Structural Engineers.

Grantham, M.G., Herts, B. and Broomfield, J., 1997. The use of linear polarisation corrosion rate measurements in aiding rehabilitation options for the deck slabs of a reinforced concrete underground car park. Construction and Building Materials, 11(4), pp.215-224.

Chow, W.K., 1995. On ventilation design for underground car parks. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 10(2), pp.225-245.

Naylor, D.J., Pande, G.N., Simpson, B. and Tabb, R., 1999. Finite elements in geotechnical engineering. Pineridge Press Ltd. Swansea, U. K.(SW/75), 1981, 245.

Zdravkovic, L., Potts, D. M., and St John, H. D. 2011. Modelling of a 3D excavation in finite element analysis. In Stiff Sedimentary Clays: Genesis and Engineering Behaviour: Géotechnique Symposium in Print 2007 (pp. 319-335). Thomas Telford Ltd.

Shoup, D., 2014. The high cost of minimum parking requirements. In Parking Issues and Policies (pp. 87-113). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Akintoye, A. 2004. Design and build: a survey of construction contractors_x0092_ views.

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