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Visual Criticism can be defined as the assessment of an object/artwork on the basis of its presentation or aesthetics. Visual critique can be represented using visual elements of the artifact, including colors, shades, patterns, lines, curves, shapes and textures.
Color has the most effect on our emotions, so it is also used to construct an aura of artwork. Most artists use color to reflect their talent in their work in an inspiring way. Color may be seen from a variety of approaches, including light, sound, pattern, shape, symbol, mood, harmony, action and contrast. Alice Cheng and Gang painting of buildings with the sunset is a classic example of a painting that depicts color as light. The change of color from the sunset to other points suggest different wavelength of spectrum (Chen et al. 37)
Lines are the groundwork for each visual /artwork. Lines can be used to in various ways; they can be used to show length, depth, distance, rhythm, movement, emotions, forms, structures, pattern and growth. Different lines trigger different psychological responses, for example, curved lines show ease and comfort, calm and horizontal distance, vertical height and length while jagged lines suggest anxiety and turmoil. The technique of drawing lines can describe different qualities. The freehand line can be used to describe individual vigor and attitude of an artist, mechanical lines can be used to show rigid control, continuous lines are used to lead eyes to the certain direction, broken lines to show insubstantial, thick lines to show strength and thin line delicacy. The cover of the 40th Annual Edition of Artists and Graphic Designer Market magazine has three bottles of paint pouring at the surface. The yellow paint is spread in a manner that doesn't portray a specific pattern. This may be used to show that the artist is not careful or his interest is not to form a particular object but rather to show the quality of the paint (Bostic and Mary, 97)
The shape is an enclosed area of artwork. The appearance of shapes in terms of angles and curves vary subject to the viewpoint. Shapes are usually used control emotions in the creation of artwork, for instance, square and rectangles are usually used to portray strength and stability, circles and ellipses suggest continuity, triangles lead eyes in upward movement while inverted triangles trigger a sense of imbalance (Dow and Arthur, 73). Many of the art we come across are two-dimensional for example drawings, paintings, prints and photographs which are mostly seen as a flat surface. A great deal of the two-dimensional artwork brings out the illusion of three-dimensions by bringing together the visual elements.
Abstract shapes are brought out by stimulation of emotions by organizing visual elements in a harmonic way just like musician do. When viewing at abstract artwork the observer is required to be open-minded towards metaphysical attributes of the visual elements and consider a spiritual response contrary to analytical. Geometric shapes are often used to deliver the idea of rigidity. These include structures, patterns, perspectives as well as 3-dimensional artworks. Organic shapes on the other hands are natural, asymmetrical and freeform in nature. They include plants, plant parts, anatomical forms of body organs and ephemeral forms of water and clouds. Other classifications of describing shapes are symbolic and decorative shapes, positive and negative shapes, transparent, reflective and opaque shape. Art in chemistry; chemistry in art cover designer has geometric shapes of atomic bonds and ironic bonds. There are also three- dimensional shapes of cubes connected to each other with straight lines and two-dimensional shapes of a painting brush in a test tube (Greenberg et al.11)
Tone can basically be described as the intensity of color i.e. lightness or darkness. The tone is used in artwork to create contrast, an illusion of form, tranquil or dramatic atmosphere, sense of depth and distance or create a pattern. The tone is used as contrast when comparing two similar objects or similar processes in the artwork. A good example would be comparing bananas with one overripe another ripe and the third which not yet. The artist would use different colors to capture the difference the three bananas with the unripe one being green, ripe one being yellow and the overripe being yellow-brown.
Tone can be used to depict drama and tranquility. For instance, when artist intents to draw a couple quarreling, he would put think dark lines across their dull faces to show their bitterness while on the hand he would show smooth face for a couple praying. The tone is also used to show distance and depth. In artwork, artist us tone varying from transparent to opaque for distance and depth. Opaque and dark colors show deep heads and longer distance as compared to transparent and light colors. Oil painting step by step drawing of flower vase shows an outstanding skill by the way he brought out the various colors and texture of the flowers and leaves. The flowers in the drawing are withering with the leaves shrinking as they begin to dry out (Hampton and Anita, 347)
The pattern is brought out by repetition of an aspect of artwork with an aim of communicating a sense of balance, harmonization, contrasting, rhythms or movements. There are two types of patterns in art; natural and man-made patterns. Natural patterns are usually inspired by observing naturally occurring patterns while on the other hand man-made patterns are inspired by imagination. In Fine art tips magazine cover, the artist allows strips of sky on the upper part of the which make it possible to get a feel of its scene something that we wouldn't experience if he left out the horizon (McNee and Lori, 137).
The texture is defined as the surface quality of an artwork. It is the visible smoothness or roughness of the material which is made of. Texture can be classified as physical or optical. In the optical text, the artist uses his skills in painting to bring out the impression of texture. Though the object may be painted on material which is not made of, it appears real. Physical texture, on the other hand, the artist uses expressive brushstrokes to display the artist's and subjects' physical and emotional energy (Hodge and Thomas, 264).
Form communicates about the physical volume of an object and the space it occupies. It is sculpture, three-dimensional design, and architecture. Three-dimensional forms are usually in form of models, curves, and construction. It can be made from wood, clay, glass, resin, glass, and plastic. Two-dimensional forms display the impression of 3dimensional in 2dimension by competent manipulation of visual elements (Dow and Arthur, 73).
Assumptions of the visual elements about the audience: visual criticism is highly affected by the visual perception. Visual perception plays a paramount role in our everyday life because it assists us in learning and relates to others. Since we rely on perception with easy we tend to overlook the complexity and assumptions of visual perception and criticism. Some assumptions based on previous visual criticism are
The assumption that the source of the light is above supposed that the origin of the light used to illuminate the object in the artwork is above the object. This assumption expects the audience to keep that in their mind as they make the judgment of the visual element aspects employed to pass the message.
The assumption that the objects are viewed from below implies that the artist had observed the object from the lower level. The audience is therefore expected to keep it in their mind when describing the elements applied on the artwork
The faces are seen upright is an assumption which means that the faces of the object are viewed from as being upright.
Almost 90% of what we observe artwork doesn't reach our brains. For this reason, the brain makes the best guess depending on the previous experience or past knowledge. Therefore the visual information the audience see is a combination of prior information about the world and the real artwork (Chen et al., 37).
The surrounding assists to give context to the visual information they absorb. The contrasts of the atmosphere colors have an impact on how they remember the color pattern. This is to say that the color variations between the content and the surroundings affect the audience's ability to focus on the artwork (Dow and Arthur, 73).
Rhetoric is the ability to efficiently and skillfully pass the intended message. In this context, rhetoric refers to the ability and the process of analyzing artifacts. The purpose of rhetoric is to take into account the intention, audience and the design of the given situation. Rhetoric review allows the observers to analyze how "good" or "bad" the artwork is (McNee and Lori, 137). The process of implementing a rhetorical analysis involves the use of various rhetorical strategies. The main aim of rhetoric is to get involved in critical thoughts with an aim of successfully passing across intended information to the predetermined audience. In order to effectively determine the intended information of a particular artwork its good to ask how the artist crafted his/her artwork.
Critical analysis is the first step in using rhetoric effectively. For you to come up with a sensible and rational analysis you should critically on the artwork of interest. When reading its advisable to break down the artifact into several parts. Then try to find out what the artist is intending to communicate to the audience. After successfully analyzing artifact, you can establish whether the intended information was efficiently passed across. Critical analysis is, therefore, examination and understanding how the artwork has achieved its effect on the audience (Bostic and Mary, 97).
After a critical analysis of the selected artifacts, the next move in the process of carrying out an effective rhetorical analysis is to discuss the finding. When we talk about rhetoric we refer to the art of persuasiveness or the skills to pass the message across effectively.
The persuasive appeals which are also referred to as a rhetorical triangle ensure effectiveness in communication. The three persuasive appeals which include logos, ethos, and pathos are portrayed as the corners at the triangles because they play an important task in holding the message together (Hampton and Anita, 347). The three rhetoric appeals are therefore important for effective communication of the intended message to the audience. Other strategies in using the rhetoric effectively are argumentation (deductive logical arguments and inductive logical argument) and avoidance of logical fallacies.
Bostic, Mary B. 2015 Artist's & Graphic Designer's Market. , 2014.
Chen, Alice, and Gang Chen.Using Free Scribus Software to Create Professional Presentations: Book Covers, Magazine Covers, Graphic Designs, Posters, Newsletters, Renderings, and More. Irvine, Calif: ArchiteGInc, 2010. Print.
Dow, Arthur W. Theory and Practice of Teaching Art. New York: Teachers college, Columbia University, 2012.
Greenberg, Barbara R, and Dianne Patterson.Art in Chemistry, Chemistry in Art. Englewood, Colo: Teacher Ideas Press, 2011. Print.
Hampton, Anita. Oil Painting Step by Step. Laguna Hills, CA: Walter Foster, 2013. Print.
Hodge, Thomas. Vhs Video Cover Art. , 2015.
McNee, Lori. Fine Art Tips with Lori Mcnee: Painting Techniques & Professional Advice. , 2015.
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