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There are many names throughout the history of heroes who have had an effect on the world in both positive and negative ways. There are, however, many renowned persons whose effect on the globe was enormous. The purpose of this study is to explore the social influence of Alexander the Great.
Alexander the Great is rightly recognized as one of the world's finest and most courageous military leaders. Alexander the Great not only conquered vast swaths of territory, but he also demonstrated dynamic leadership, successful, and intelligent strategy and tactics on the battlefield. Alexander the Great successfully ruled the largest empire of the world, with his help the empire stretched its territories from Greece to India. Alexander the Great was not only a wise warrior, but an educated person, who obtained education from the philosopher Aristotle (Green 8). Due to his leadership qualities and mastership, Alexander was many times worshipped as the God in the countries where he ruled. In addition to his numerous war achievements, Alexander had an enormous impact on the world history and culture, spreading western culture and philosophy across the entire globe (Green 8). Thanks to this person, Greek culture was successfully amalgamated with the western one, and as a result, we see a tremendously great jump in the cultural development of the world in general.
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Alexander's campaign to the east was one of the manifestations of Hellenism. It was so impressive that the Greeks considered it the key to the beginning of a new era. This campaign enabled the Macedonians and Greeks to get acquainted with unknown or little-known tribes, peoples and their ways of life and culture (Green 9). Alexander was very interested in exploring distant Asia because of the way of life of people there, so alien to Greek one. Talented scientists and educators represented the surrounding of Alexander and described everything they had seen and learned during the campaign in their books. Great leap was made in the development of military discipline, tactics and strategy, army supplies and provision of communications troops (building of roads and bridges). In connection with the general policy of conquest and expansion of the territories, the problem of management of the conquered territories occurred, as well as the necessity to find the appropriate forms for cooperation with the foreign tribes and people. There was a problem in the sphere of navigation, when it became necessary to adapt the Greek ships to sail in open and stormy seas around the southern coast of Asia, from India to Arabia. Therefore, Alexander managed to cope with the difficulties, and created flourishing and developed state.
The ancestors of Alexander the Great found two major states: the Ptolemaic monarchy and monarchy Seleucids. The language of the higher strata of the urban population of these States was Greek. The concept of "Hellene" was the equivalent to "educated and well-bred man" as opposed to "barbarians" (Fox 6). Synthesis of Greek culture with the culture of the ancient East in history is usually denoted by the term "Hellenism", and the time of propagation of this culture is called Hellenistic period. This period was characterized by intensive development of rhetorical education aimed at formation of the Greek speech on the basis of the development of literary and their historical heritage.
Hellenic influence, introduced by Alexander, continued to spread on the conquered territories. Greek language, which was introduced as official one, gave the raise to Greek literature into the former Persian Empire; therefore, it has also influenced the development of philosophy and writing in the region. The Great Library, located at Alexandria, Egypt, started by Ptolemy I, became the most significant center for education in the ancient world. In the lands, conquered by Alexander, Greek theatre flourished, therefore, numerous amphitheaters were built, so it is possible to state that Alexander was the initiator of the development of the theatrical culture. Even after the development and foundation of the Roman Empire, Greek language, philosophy, and culture spread from the lands conquered by Alexander the Great to the others in the East and then in the north to Europe, with the help of the process of active trade (Fox 13).
The persona of Alexander the Great together with his outstanding military success greatly impressed his ancestors, contemporaries and later generations. In ancient times, numerous legends were composed about Alexander the Great. During his career, he went far beyond Macedonian lands and had to deal with the complex problems, connected with the relations between different groups of Asian, Macedonian and Greek population. These complex and ambiguous relations, deeply rooted in the particular economic and political development of the ancient world, have finally determined the character of Alexander's conquests and their final outcome (Fox 14). The actions and wars of Alexander the Great resulted in the creation of new vast empire, which included some areas in the East, entire Aegean and a significant part of the Balkan Peninsula. Macedonian conquest captured rich urban territories, military strongholds and strategically vital roads. Alexander limited his demands to the recognition of his supreme authority and control, and life according to the Macedonian rulers. He did not seek to change and break the age-old traditions of people. Macedonian conquest has finally changed the position and balance of the forces in the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia.
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Green, Peter. Hellenistic History and Culture. Los Angeles: University of California
Press, Ltd, 1993. Print.
Fox, Robin Lane. Alexander the Great. London: Penguin Books Ltd, 2003.Print
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