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Reform is a word that has many definitions, but generally refers to an improvement, amendment, or change of a corrupt, undesirable, or wrong system. The term first appears in the 18th century, when it emerged from the Association movement of Christopher Wyvill. This movement aimed for Parliamentary Reform as its main goal.
Prison reform is an ongoing struggle in the United States. In the early twenty-first century, racial disparity among inmates is one of the largest concerns. This is because minority communities have been hit particularly hard by the high crime rate and harsh sentencing laws. As a result, more black and Hispanic men than white men are in prison. Many experts attribute this disparity to racially biased sentencing laws and high poverty and joblessness in minority communities.
Prison overcrowding remains a significant problem throughout the United States. The introduction of mandatory sentencing laws in the 1990s limited the discretion of judges when determining sentences for crimes. As a result, lawmakers gave even petty criminals mandatory prison sentences. Prior to these laws, small offenders might have received probation or drug treatment instead.
Tax code reform
The House approved tax code reform this week that will make it simpler, fairer, and less burdensome for Americans. It will put more money in the pockets of hardworking families, spur economic growth, and create jobs. The reform will also improve the tax code and encourage private investment. Here's what to expect from the bill.
Kearney and Turner's tax reform plan will address the issues that face dual-income families. The proposal would eliminate the secondary earner tax penalty and increase the standard deduction for secondary earners, keeping more money in the home and incentivizing work. By doing so, the proposal will help dual-income households become self-sufficient.
Across the globe, women have been fighting for greater equality in a variety of ways. In many cases, they have sought to gain control over their own bodies, including by obtaining access to reproductive health services. Others have fought for their rights through political movements. These organizations are often persecuted by governments and religious leaders. In some cases, they have been accused of threatening public order and national security.
Despite women's right to vote, many countries have yet to implement equal rights for women. The Constitution of Pakistan, for example, gives women the right to vote, but patriarchal local customs and powerful figures have kept them from exercising this right. Meanwhile, in Afghanistan, a law has recently been passed that requires polling stations to take a photo, making voting more difficult for women, especially those from conservative regions where women cover their faces in public. Women's rights organizations, such as Amnesty International, have worked to increase the voting rights of women around the world.
Temperance reform is a movement to reduce alcohol consumption and promote the right to be sober. Throughout history, wise men have decried the evils of alcohol consumption. But only recently have the ill effects of drinking become clear enough to warrant a united effort. Today, there are a number of societal organizations dedicated to reforming drinking habits.
In the United States, the fight over prohibition has become a political issue. The first state to pass prohibition laws was Maine. Thirteen states followed. Whitman, however, opposed prohibition and believed that reform could only be accomplished through persuasion and appeals to common sense. In an article for the Brooklyn Daily Times, Whitman argued for individual restraint as the most effective means of reform. She also called prohibition an "impractical" solution to the problem of alcohol consumption.
The Abolition of Reform movement has been gaining ground over the past few years. Protesters want to end police violence and make massive investments in communities most affected by the violence of police. They draw on the work of abolitionist organizations. These groups have been around for more than two decades, but their demands for reform have only recently become mainstream. Black feminist abolitionists, for example, have been organizing for decades for a police-free society.
In the early nineteenth century, abolitionists also sought to end slavery, but they did so in the name of social change. The abolitionist movement was not the largest in membership, but it was one of the most successful. The abolitionist movement fascinates people because of its role in sectional conflict that led to the Civil War, as well as its assault on racial and gender inequality, foreshadowing the Civil Rights Movement of the twentieth century.
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