Why Mycobacterium tuberculosis threatens the life of AIDS patients

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the bacteria that is most dangerous to AIDS patients (Alteri et al 5147). Since it impacts about one-third of the world's population, the microbe poses a global health risk. As a result, 2 million people die each year as a result of this. Although antimycobacterial therapy is available in the majority of healthcare facilities, the medications currently available are unsuccessful in combating the microbe. This is due to the impermeable existence of the mycobacterial cell wall, as well as M. tuberculosis's proclivity for resistance to multiple medications administered to patients (Alteri et al 5148). Besides, the other problem with the microbe is that it is having the capability of remaining viable in a host that has been infected for a longer period.

M. tuberculosis microbe affects host following the droplet inhalation which are containing bacilli. As long as the bacilli get into lungs, they infect via phagocytosis in which they occupy alveolar macrophages and lung macrophages. By and large, alveolar macrophages triggered by apt stimuli might efficiently transmit M. tuberculosis that is phagocytosed to a lysosome where they are destroyed (Alteri et al 5150). However, some bacilli usually escape the delivered lysosome, thus continue surviving in a macrophage. The macrophages that are already affected might eventually remain within the lung or rather get circulated to various body organs. Nevertheless, a few people develop to tuberculosis. This is because most of the healthy people have a stronger immune system, which has the capacity of ensuring M. tuberculosis is kept in check to ensure that such ailments do not come about. The immune system is of AIDS patients is weak, and the microbe can never be put in check appropriately, thus the development of tuberculosis among such patients.


When M. tuberculosis infects AIDS patients, then they are likely to have tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can indicate the following symptoms:

Persistent cough

The patients having tuberculosis may show signs of persistent coughing. A cough produced might have sputum that bears Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Chen, Minjian, Huixian and Heinz 3709). For that matter, whenever coughs fail to cease for nearly a month, then TB ought to be assessed.

Hemoptysis/blood coughing

Normally, M .tuberculosis grows within lungs. This leads to tubercles formation, which damages respiratory tissues alongside forming cavities within the lungs. Blood vessels similarly might be eroded through progressing ailments (Chen, Minjian, Huixian and Heinz 3712). This makes people infected to cough up sputum. Therefore, coughing blood certainly is a symptom, which is alarming for most of TB patients. For that matter, a cough in which blood comes out should often be assessed medically with an immediate need.


This is an overall feeling of weakness. It is showing that a concerned individual is having something amiss. Typically, the syndrome of chronic fatigue is seen within TB patients at an early stage (Chen, Minjian, Huixian and Heinz 3713). This is coming to a result of the exhaustion of immune system induced by response of excess immune against infectious agent spread.

Chest pains

The patients with TB are susceptible to chest pains. The spread of TB into pleural space might lead to the tubercles rupture within the pleural space (Nahid, Payam, Madhukar and Philip 109). Chest pains come as a result pleural linings. Thus, the patients shall complain of difficult breathing which might be linked to heart attack. For that matter, when one feels chest pain then he/she should instantly go for TB scanning.

Weight loss

The weight loss which comes abruptly might be associated with the appetite loss (Chen, Minjian, Huixian and Heinz 3715). Most of the patients with TB are presenting extreme weight loss.


TB infections may develop whenever an individual inhales tubercle bacilli, which has come from the droplets of a person who is infected. The droplets are reaching lung alveoli in which bacilli might be dropped (Manganelli et al. 425). Alveolar macrophages might gulp tubercle bacilli thus destroying them. Some may proliferate in macrophage as well as being released whenever such macrophage perishes. In that state, the bacilli might multiply towards other body parts via the use of bloodstream (Manganelli et al. 423). The regions where tuberculosis is almost certainly to breed into incorporate: the lung apex, brain, kidneys, bones as well as lymph nodes (Manganelli et al. 431). The process infection typically organizes the reaction of the immune system of the body.Disease progression

For several people infected with TB, their immune system response kills bacilli cells (Nahid, Payam, Madhukar and Philip 107). During this phase, the latent tuberculosis infection is created. This might be noticed through using a skin test known as Mantoux tuberculin. Within weeks after the infection period, immune systems for healthy people have the capability to halt further proliferation of tubercle bacilli. For that matter, immune system prevents further development of the ailment among healthy people. However, for AIDS patients, their immune systems are weaker and may not stop further progression of TB. People, particularly with a strong immune system, usually recover completely from the first infection, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis finally perishes (Nahid, Payam, Madhukar and Philip 106). For AIDS patients, tubercle bacilli surmount immune system defenses, thus starting to proliferate. This might lead to the progression to an active TB ailment, which is a significant threat to AIDS patients. This development might take place just after infection or rather last for some years.


M. tuberculosis is an incredibly slow-developing, intracellular microbe. Therefore, its treatment needs utilization of several drugs, which are administered for some months. Through apt antibiotic treatments, tuberculosis may be cured for AIDS patients. Treatment entails multiple drugs for antibiotics, which are administered to patients for at least six months or rather at times such drugs are given for about twelve months. AIDS patients when taking antibiotic drugs for tuberculosis; it is advisable for them to check on their nutritional needs, which would boost their immune system. Nevertheless, several strains of M. tuberculosis are usually resistant to a single otherwise various standard drugs for TB that has been complicating treatment significantly (Nahid, Payam, Madhukar and Philip 110). Presently, five drugs have been approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration to be employed in treating tuberculosis during the initial phase of the disease (Frieden, Thomas and John 407). The medications that have been adopted incorporate, pyrazinamide (PZA), isoniazid (INH), ethambutol (EMB) together with rifampin (RIF), pyrazinamide (PZA) are deemed to anti-tuberculosis drugs that are employed in treating TB for the initial phases (Frieden, Thomas and John 408).

Other essential information

Tuberculosis is a vastly preventable ailment. AIDS patients alongside caregivers are supposed to take initiatives in preventing the microbe from threatening people’s lives (Nahid, Payam, Madhukar and Philip 105). Patients’ isolation together with appropriate ventilation forms the principal basis for preventing TB transmission to other individuals who are not infected. For instance, in USA health care professionals are trying hard to recognize persons who have been infected by M. tuberculosis earlier before such microbe progress to active disease.

Works Cited

Alteri, Christopher J., et al. "Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces pili during human infection." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104.12 (2007): 5145-5150.

Chen, Minjian, Huixian Gan, and Heinz G. Remold. "A mechanism of virulence: virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv, but not attenuated H37Ra, causes significant mitochondrial inner membrane disruption in macrophages leading to necrosis." The Journal of Immunology 176.6 (2006): 3707-3716.

Frieden, Thomas R., and John A. Sbarbaro. "Promoting adherence to treatment for tuberculosis: the importance of direct observation." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 85.5 (2007): 407-409.

Manganelli, Riccardo, et al. "The Mycobacterium tuberculosis ECF sigma factor σE: role in global gene expression and survival in macrophages." Molecular microbiology 41.2 (2001): 423-437.

Nahid, Payam, Madhukar Pai, and Philip C. Hopewell. "Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis." Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 3.1 (2006): 103-110.

December 08, 2022



Illness Healthcare

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Tuberculosis Aids Patient

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