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Most of the relationship and social activity shown by people in their everyday activities is due to the various sociological hypotheses that apply in daily activities. A summary of a collection of intellectual thinking that explains human society is the basic concept of "social theory." While some sociological ideas are less practical, most theories have retained and been generally accepted in their importance and have made progress in explaining the today's social behaviours, relationships and society in general. In-depth learning of these theories promotes a deeper and enlightening understanding of the of the “sociology’s past, present and the future.” In this paper, three sociological theories will be explained in detail. The essay will delve into the definition of the selected concepts, offer an understanding of its relevance in the society, and provide a reflection on how the theory applies in the work environment, home, the community life and the influence it holds on future learning.
Game theory is a sociological concept that attempts to offer an understanding of the interaction individuals have with each other. The inventors who came up with game theory are John Nash and John von Neumann(Myerson, 2013). Game theory rose from a mathematical and economic understanding which predicted the interaction of people bears similar characteristics to a game. These features were based on the expectations of a synergy between people and the outcomes. They included strategies, profits and loses, rewards and punishments, and winners and losers. Game theory is widely practiced in everyday operations. It is significant in work based on the understanding where one has to work hard, and a reward is expected as an outcome(Myerson, 2013). At home, the game theory is efficient based on the numerous strategies applied for the benefit of a happy coexistence. In the community life, game theory is equally applicable. Profits and losses, and punishments come in handy in the setting up of a conducive and harmonious environment.
Labeling theory is usually associated with the concept of crime and deviance. The theory explains how the social process of labeling individuals and treating them as "criminally deviant" persons plays a major role in fostering their deviant behaviors(Link & Phelan, 2013). Additionally, it offers an understanding of the repercussions for the labeling of such individuals and the manner in which this causes biased treatment against them based on the labeling. The theory is based on the understanding that “no act is intrinsically criminal”(Link & Phelan, 2013). It maintains that the definition of criminality is based on the interpretation of those in power. The labeling theory applies in the workplace for example when it is known one of the employees was accused of an offence in their previous place of work. When a similar incident occurs in the current office, the assumption will be to blame that employee based on the labeling concept. At home and in the community life, children engage in games such as stealing fruits and breaking windows. In poor areas, these acts by children are not considered as innocent but a tendency towards juvenile delinquency.
Rational Choice Theory
Rational choice theory was initiated by sociologist George Homans in 1961(Craib, 2015). This theory is based on the understanding of the role of economics in influencing human behavior. The concept offers the thought that human acts are centered on the possibility of making a profit, and this plays a significant role before a person decides on a course of action. The concept focuses on the organization of the goods and services based on money. Theorist, on the other hand, maintain that similar principles are used in the human interaction where information, time, approval and prestige are channeled in the pursuit goals and personal desires(Craib, 2015). This theory applies in the work environment where the “ends justify the means.” The goal in the workplace is to achieve the best results with the least effort, and the shortest means possible. The theory applies at home where one assist in specific chores to receive recognition and gratitude. In the society, people strive to stand out by engaging in particular projects, and that lifts their social status.
This paper has keenly focused on the sociological theories that are of most significance in the work environment, home, and the community life. The theories include Game theory, Labelling theory, and Rational Choice theory. The choice of the theories was based on their significance in daily operations. The theories highlighted in this paper are essential in understanding the effects they have on individuals and choices. For instance, game theory illustrates everyday decisions made by people to be based on strategies and anticipated outcomes. Labelling theory works on the understanding that assumptions and labels associated with a person are determinants in the deviant ways of an individual. The rational choice theory usually is based on the gains a person expects from a deed. It explains actions are based on the satisfaction a person expects after an act.
Craib, I. (2015). Modern social theory. Routledge.
Link, B. G., & Phelan, J. C. (2013). Labeling and stigma. In Handbook of the sociology of mental health (pp. 525–541). Springer.
Myerson, R. B. (2013). Game theory. Harvard university press.
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