Angry responses to emotional events

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This essay seeks to investigate a statistical publication by McDonald et al. critically (2010). It concentrates on the introduction, procedures, findings, analysis, and references. This paper's introduction section tries to evaluate the literature review, the hypothesis or purposes, as well as the conclusion drawn from the stated objective or justification. The participants and the materials used in the study are the key topics of attention in the methods section. The critical analysis will go into the research's data and test results and their applicability. However, the discussion section's critique will examine how the outcome relates to the theory and whether the conclusion is supported. It will also cover the alternative findings, the application as well as the limitation for the generalization of the results. Finally, this paper will seek to critique the references used in the research based on date and whether they are complete.

Statistical Analysis Article Critique


The neuropsychological affect both the personality and behavior of an individual. The victims of falls or accidents may experience a decline in emotional perception. The may also face difficulties in making sense of the belief and intentions of others due to the damage of frontal-limbic circuit. The problem of social cognition significantly affects social behavior. The traumatic injuries to the brain lead to an issue of self-monitoring and control, and this is demonstrated through increased expression of irritability, aggressiveness and high temper. Others also experience a decline in drive, motivation and increased in apathy.

This study aims to examine whether disorders associated with drive and control as stated on neuropsychological assessment can be observed experimentally in how victims of traumatic brain injury respond to emotional inducing stimuli and particularly the extent through which they experience anger as they watch short films. Studies have shown that severe traumatic brain injury through motor vehicle accidents, sports, falls and assault can result in neuropsychological and neurophysical impairments on the victims (McDonald et al., 2010). Even though the changes have been reported, there are no studies on how to quantify them. The study targets anger though it is difficult to evoke like other emotions such as sadness and disgust. According to this study aggression and irritability are common when one has impaired social functions. The research used films that focuses on injustices because that had a high chance of invoking anger as compared to other emotions.

The study hypothesizes that victims of traumatic brain injury have different responses to evoking emotional situations with those having control disorder being highly reactive to films that evoke negative emotions such as anger and confusion and those with drive disorder showing no significant emotional changes (McDonald et al., 2010). The responses depend on whether they are victims of drive disorder or control disorder. The study anticipates that measures of neuropsychological loss due to drive disorders would have less reaction to emotional films that invoke negative reactions such as anger.

In this study used 29 victims of traumatic brain injuries and 32 persons as control experiments. The two groups were shown emotionally evocative films aimed to elicit anger. The two teams were then asked to rate their emotions before watching the movie and after watching the film. The participants were also given measures of executive functions to help them assess their flexibility and self-control as indices of measuring drive and control respectively (McDonald et al., 2010). The result of the experiment indicates that both groups had heightened anxiety after watching the films. The trial B error and Hyalings trail score showed that the participants with traumatic brain injury demonstrate an increase in confusion and anger. However, the study found no association between emotional responsivity and drive. The research supports the use of a formal measure of disinhibition neuropsychological test as a consequence of emotional disinhibition. The study also found that it was difficult to achieve the operationalization of loss drive.

Critical Analysis


The literature review used in this article is not complete and up to date. It used studies published as early as 1990. Such studies, though have relevant information does not provide continuous and up-to-date data for further studies. It could also be possible that more research and findings have been established in recent studies on the neuropsychological behaviors resulting from traumatic brain injury. The study has stated its hypothesis (McDonald et al., 2010). It hypothesis that that victim of traumatic brain injury has different responses to evoking emotional situations. The reaction of which depend on the whether the victims of traumatic brain injury have control or drive disorder.

The study predicted that measures of neuropsychological loss due to drive disorders would have less response to emotional films that invoke negative reactions such as anger. The expected outcome followed from the hypothesis because the hypothesis mention of different emotional response and one of the possible result of that is that individual with drive disorders having less response to specific film meant to invoke anger. Other particular prediction of the study would include an anticipation of a high relationship between emotional responsivity and control.


The study used 29 participants with an average age of 43.9 years and consisting of 23 males and 6 females that had sustained acute traumatic brain injury who deserved to be accorded inpatient rehabilitation. It also used a control group of 32 participants of an average age of 45.4 years and comprising of 21 males and 11 females (McDonald et al., 2010). These participants were representative of those suffering from a severe traumatic brain injury because they met the criteria that required the participants to have a minimum of two years post-traumatic amnesia used as an index of traumatic brain injury.

The study imposed exclusion criteria on the candidate. Such exclusion criteria ensure that only those suitable for the study were used as participants (Trochim, 2006). In this case, participants were excluded from the study, if he or she has a severe cognitive impairment that rendered them unable to cooperate in the experiment. The participants were also excluded from the research based on the lack of functional English psychosis, drug addiction, history of disability in learning, as well as psychiatric or neurological condition. These exclusion criteria were reasonable for the study. Excluding variables from a decision that researchers much be willing to make to enhance the integrity of the study (Connelly, 2017). In this case, participants who had severe cognitive damage who could not cooperate was important because cooperation was necessary of the study. The participants needed to watch a film, and they carry out an assessment. These could only take place if these involves could cooperate. Similarly, those involved in drug addiction may not be a victim of traumatic brain injury. Druga has a psychological effect that may be similar to those examined in the study, and that would compromise the research. The same would apply to participants with a psychiatric or neurological condition, history of learning disability and lack of functional English. Even though all these may show some similar behaviors to those with a traumatic brain injury, the intention of the study was not to cover aspects that are out of traumatic brain injury.

The study variables are essential in any given the research because they dictate the relationship that exists in a given study as well as a result. In this study, variables were defined, and they include working memory, processing speed, generativity, flexibility, depression, and anxiety. Similarly, the measurement procedures are reasonable. The study required that qualitative data be converted to numerical data that can be statistically analyzed. The best way to do was to use questionnaires and Likert scale (McDonald et al., 2010). As a result, the research used self –report questionnaire profile of mood state-Adolescent (POMS-A) was used to measure the participant current mood state. Since it is difficult to express the behaviors in statistical forms, the study used a 5 point linker scale of 0-4 to measure the present mood dimensions such as fatigue, confusion, anxiety, depression, and tension. Each of these had a maximum point of 16.

The study used different methods to measures the behaviors of participants. In addition to POMS –A, it used Emotional regulated Questionnaires (EQR) and Depression Anxiety Stress scale -21 (DASS-21). In all these case Linkert scale was employed to provide numerical data with EQR using 7 points. All these procedures used in this research was appropriate in proving the hypothesis. The approach involves identifying and measuring the behavioral changes before and after watching the film for both intervention and control groups. It through such process that the hypothesis could be proven.


The use of statistics and statistic test help to summarize a study and improve the readers’ ability to understand research (McCusker, & Gunaydin, 2015). in this study, appropriate statistics and statistical tests are used. The study used two-factor analysis score to provide a summary score of control and drive scores and test score for the combined sample. The factor analysis of the three test score generated two factor that represented dyscontrol. The first factor had a value of 1.33 representing 44% of the variance and consisted of the Hyaling scores and TMT errors. The second factor had a value of 1.04 and represented 35% of the variance and comprised of High COWAT errors. The three scores produce a factor value of 1.925 indicating that there was more word generate during COWAT test. It also showed that there was high matrix reasoning score as well low TMT variation in the score. The result explained 64.9% variance. In this study, Factor 1 representing an individual with traumatic brain injury was more significant than factor 2 representing control group. It had high variation (44% against 35%).

The result Depression Anxiety Stress scale -21 (DASS-21) were analyzed using one way ANOVA. The result indicates that victims of traumatic brain injury had significant depression. The F-statistics value stood at 8.366 and p-value of less than 0.005. Similarly, the victims also proved to be significantly confused with the result showing F-statistics to be 19.73 and P-value less than 0.001.


The study proved the hypothesis that neuropsychological measure of loss of drive is less associated with response to emotional films while neuropsychological indices measured through loss of control is highly associated with films that evoke a negative emotional reaction. The study found out that traumatic brain injury patients with control disorders demonstrated increased confusion and anger after watching a movie showing injustice. The research also failed to find out that victims with drive disorders did not show an emotional response after viewing the film.

The study conclusion concludes that there is an association between emotional responsivity and neuropsychological measures of control drives (McDonald et al., 2010). However, the same correlation is missing in neuropsychological indices of drive disorder. Such conclusion is justified and logically based on the result because justified by because the individuals with control disorder due to traumatic stress who participated demonstrated increased frustration and anger the move while those with drive disorder no emotional response.

Alternatively, the study concludes by calling for the refinement of a drive to different emotional reactivity from self-initiation as well as the use of task that can differentiate deeds from inhibitory controls. The manipulation of anger in this study can help in future treatments in increasing anger control. For instance, the use of emotions to alter emotion can help in the practicing emotion control techniques (McDonald et al., 2010). The result of this research can be applicable in many environments both inside and outside the laboratory. However, some traumatic brain injury participants may not respond as shown in the study where six failed to show emotional changes. Though such result may be expected, it is only accurate to state that not all victim of traumatic brain injury will receive a response to emotionally evoking films.


The use of references adds to the credibility and reliability of a study. However, they are outdated, the integrity of the entire study may be questioned (Connelly, 2016). The study does not use current or recent research to prove its hypothesis. Most of the reference work used is above years with some even extending to 20-year margin. Since the references used are outdated, we can only conclude that they are not complete. The period that has elapsed since these articles were published is enough for writing and publishing other works on the topic.


Connelly, L. M. (2016). Trustworthiness in qualitative research. Medsurg Nursing, 25(6), 435- 436

Connelly, L. M. (2017). Research decisions in clinical settings. Medsurg Nursing, 26(4), 278- 278,285.

Jackson, S. L. (2016). Research methods and statistics: a critical thinking approach. Boston, Mass: Cengage Learning

McCusker, K., & Gunaydin, S. (2015). Research using qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods and choice based on the research. Perfusion, 30(7), 537-542.

McDonald, S., Hunt, C., Henry, J. D., Dimoska, A., & Bornhofen, C. (2010). Angry responses to emotional events: The role of impaired control and drive in people with severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, 32(8), 855-864.

Trochim, W. (2006). Research Methods Knowledge Base. Retrieved October 30, 2017, from

April 13, 2023

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