Classical Titration

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Classical titration refers to the lab technique utilized to determine the unidentified concentration of the reactant. Moreover, the method entails delicate steps that need good observation skills and patience. The indicator is utilized to recognize the endpoint of the reaction after which the final volume is obtained and used to calculate the concentration of the unknown reactant using mathematical formulas (Ham and Maham, 2016, p. 23).  Titration is also regarded as volumetric analysis and is applied in the field of chemistry.  The analytical, method originated from France back in the 18th century when Antoine created the first burette (Haghi and Zaikov, 2016, p. 49). 

Principle and Types

There are various other types of titration apart from classical titration because different substances have distinct reaction processes. Moreover, different titration has unique procedures used to determine the concentration of certain solution thus being suitable for specific chemicals or materials (Tissue, 2013, p. 79).   The principles of the standard titration are to measure the reagent needed to complete the chemical reaction with certain analyte. The reaction is carried out in the flask with dissolved, and the titrant poured to the reaction flask utilizing the burette.  However, the titration process is completed when enough titrant reacts with the analyte which is marked as the endpoint (Skoog et al., 2014, p. 101).  The indicator is added to the reaction beaker and signals when the endpoint has been reached by changing the color of the solution indicating that the analyte has completely reacted.  There are several rules needed when designing a successful classical titration.  Firstly, the reaction must proceed to a well defined and stable equivalence point, and the titrant has to be a standard or standardized (Carol, 2015, p. 123).  Furthermore, the endpoint should be able to be recognized, and the sample and titrant’s mass or volume should be accurately established.   Also, the reaction must have a definite chemistry and complicating side reactions.


The core rationale of titration is the quantitative and qualitative estimation of the given substance and assists in checking the safety and quality of chemicals, foods, drugs and other significant substances.   There are various real life applications of classical titration in different domains. Initially, pharmacists utilize titration to attain the desired mixture of drugs as well as determining the correct ratios of distinct medicines for the intravenous drip (Granger, 2015, p. 57).   Also, titration is used to scrutinize blood glucose levels and pregnancy tests as well as other urinalysis tests.  In the biology laboratories, titration is used to identify the proper concentration of drugs to anesthetize test animals since the anesthetic agents are combined and tested until the right compound is attained (Needham, 2013, p. 73).  Likewise, titration is applied in the food industry to define fat, oils and similar substances since certain titration techniques test free fatty acids, trace amount of water and unsaturated fatty acids.  Furthermore, the estimation of the fatty acids’ chain length and the test of the amount of sugar, salt, and vitamin concentration are achieved via titration.

Advantage and Disadvantages

The advantages of classical titration include that it is a well established, accurate and reliable method. Conversely, a broad variety of reagents can be utilized thus making it versatile (Carol, 2015, p. 83). Furthermore, the method can be applied to various industries and domains which make the life easier. The disadvantages of classical titration are that it is time-consuming and fiddly when conducted manually.  Besides, the method needs proper judgment on the indicator to be used thus incorrect identification, and inaccurate readings would lead to wrong calculations (Tissue, 2013, p. 91).


Carol, J., 2015. Handbook of analytical chemistry. Volume I Volume I. Ny Research Pr, New York.

Granger, B., 2015. New developments in analytical chemistry research. Nova Publishers, New York.

Haghi, A.K., Zaikov, G.E., 2016. Analytical chemistry from laboratory to process line. Apple Academic Press, Oakville, ON, Canada.

Ham, B.M., Maham, A., 2016. Analytical chemistry: a chemist and laboratory technician’s toolkit. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey.

Needham, J., 2013. The Grand Titration: Science and Society in East and West. Taylor and Francis, Hoboken.

Skoog, D., West, D., Holler, J., Crouch, S., 2014. Fundamentals of analytical chemistry. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, Belmont, CA.

Tissue, B.M., 2013. Basics of analytical chemistry and chemical equilibria. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey.

June 07, 2022



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