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Concept of Change as a Transformation

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Change is a transformation that allows someone or something to attain some distinction in some way. For instance, changes can be in terms of different position, course, direction, and replacement. However, alternate can be addressed in a broader way by looking at it as a process. In this case, various concepts, consisting of historical, technological, environmental, political, and economic factors are involved. Therefore, various tendencies in the surrounding can be analyzed to determine the changes that might have happened with time. Change takes place in a certain way and for certain motives and so when addressing any change it is important to get the contexts. The purpose of the paper is to tackle how the process of change is described in the two texts; “A.I. VE$US M.D. What happens when the diagnosis is automated?” by Siddhartha Mukherjee and “If Animals Have Rights, should Robots?” by Nathan Heller.

What happens when diagnosis is automated?” by Siddhartha Mukherjee

The article by Siddhartha Mukherjee portrays the change in healthcare. The change is in diagnosis; how various factors especially technology has changed the entire globe. It even raises the question as to what transformation will be brought once the diagnosis is automated. A decade ago diagnosis was conducted in four main steps; first, a doctor used the patient’s history and physical examination to attain fact about the patient’s condition. Second, the information collected could be used to generate a list of potential causes. To narrow the lists, the questions and preliminary test were conducted (differential diagnosis). In doing this, a condition is weighed on the basis of how common it is and its risk exposure. After this, the list will be downsized and the doctor was to refine the assessments. Lastly, lab tests, X-rays and CT scans are deployed to seal the diagnosis (Klement and Jochen 429).

The article goes ahead to elaborate the process of change in diagnosis. It denotes that the art of diagnosis is not straightforward in that there are doctors who would ask the patients to even demonstrate the symptoms of their conditions. A few years ago, radiologists in Brazil studied the brain to understand how diagnosis in the sector is reached. In their researches, they determined how the diagnosis process had changed; the X-rays are currently flashed before use.

The text further shows that the knowledge of diagnosis changed. An example of how changes in knowledge are experienced was given by referring to the British philosopher Gilbert Ryle. Ryle gave a lecture on two types of knowledge (factual and implicit) by giving real-life examples; a child knows that the bicycle has tires filled the air and is ridden by pushing the pedals forward in circles. Such an example expresses factual knowledge. The second example; it is said that to learn how to ride a bicycle involves a different realm in that a child learns how to ride by falling off, balancing and going over the potholes. Such kind of knowledge is called implicit. The two examples of knowledge were given to show what has steered the change in diagnosis. First, the two (factual and implicit) are the main causes of change (Klement and Jochen 429). Diagnosis depends on factual knowledge more than implicit, however, the two are interdependent. Researchers have been conducted to better the factual knowledge, but still the historical background of diagnosis must be considered. Therefore, the implicit knowledge illustrates the historical background of diagnosis by stating how the initial stages have been or use to be and the culture.

Siddhartha affirms that early efforts to automate diagnosis relied on explicit knowledge; however, with the technological advancement the process of diagnosis has been modified. Currently, an electrocardiogram is used to offer electronic activity especially on diagnosis related to heart conditions. Such a change was anticipated from the past twenty-five years and so it shows that change takes time and its experience is always physical and can be easily noted. Also, a “computer-aided detection” was introduced to help recognize various suspicious areas while reviewing the results of diagnosis. Finally, the article reveals how diagnosis in the health sector has undergone changes (Klement and Jochen 429).

If Animals Have Rights, should Robots?” by Nathan Heller

The article by Nathan Heller begins by revealing the changes that have happened to humanity. It denotes the presence of robots and how they are made to represent human qualities. Today, the world is automated and so changes. The article gives an example of fish; whether they merit what humans called “passionate, implicit morality”. Many people develop implicit reaction as a process of maturity, for instance, in the case of fish many people believe that Jesus liked to fish when he helped the fishermen to fish and so it can be presumed that after the resurrection Jesus ate some broiled. In this part of the text, Nathan is trying to justify the fact that “some changes never change” in that once there is a transformation it maintains such status (Lioi 203). Just like robots change might as well require inventions. For instance, a group of Canadian roboticists invented a hitch but that operates like a clad in rain boots. Hitchhbot was meant to tour various regions for research purposes. At this point of the article, Nathan is expressing change as an idea meant for a particular purpose.

Humans have the ability to make various transformations especially in the robot; in which they are trying to give some kind of human traits. Humans want to design a robot that has the ability to experience warm and fuzzy feelings. Such a process will make the robots to look like the animals and this forms the basis for the title of this text. The title which reads “If Animals Have Rights, should Robots” is in form of a question since there is a feeling that if robots can be changed to have close trait as those of the living things (animals) then they should be treated the same way as animals. Therefore, things can be transformed to match with others, for instance, robots are improvised to have feelings so that they can be at par with other animals even though they are manmade (Lioi 205).

Change requires management to enable safe transition and projects to meet their prescribed goals. Changed is managed in three phases that express the methodology on how to enhance the transformation. Phase one involves preparation for change; strategy must be involved that defines change accordingly and entails a management team. The second phase involves managing the change by developing and implementing plans. The final phase is reinforcing the change by collecting and analyzing feedback, diagnosing gaps and managing resistance and taking corrective action. Just as shown in selected texts change is a process that might take time.

Works Cited

Klement, Tobias, and Jochen Büchs. "Taconic acid–a biotechnological process in change." Bioresource technology 135 (2013): 422-431.

Lioi, Anthony Francis. "Waiting for R2D2//Esperando a R2D2." Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 8.2 (2017): 203-206.

October 26, 2021
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