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Descartes first starts his offer by relying on the many mistakes he has now trusted and on the resulting lack of information which he has established through those manufacturements. The meditator wanted to forget everything he thought he learned and begin to think anew, find a reason to question his new beliefs and find a new basis. The meditator rethinks that he can put away all the opinion into doubt and can doubt the foundations and the basic principle on which the opinions they were established. Although the meditator doubts almost every option and establishing news foundations, he still agrees that he cannot be able to doubt some of the simple things and universal parts from which they are built from like shape, quantity, size and time. Even at times, the meditator doubt researchers established on complex things such as astronomy, medicine and physics he agrees that modest effects like geometry and arithmetic are undoubtedly studies.
Descartes describes mind pattern as for how thought gets access to the world through ideas such as perceptions, images, memories, concepts, beliefs, and decision. The meditator concludes that all these mind ideas constitute can either be an accurate or a false representation. The meditator agrees that as long as we exist, we are proposed to convince someone on something through opinions reasoning that is through ideas so long as he exists. Therefore, this fact proves that one automatically stops to think or to generate ideas once they stop to exist. Hence, existence is the first and main prerequisite of thinking or generating ideas.
Economic and philosophical manuscript of 1844
Economic and philosophical manuscripts of 1844 were notes written by Karl Marx though not published in his lifetime and later were published in 1932. According to Marx alienation can be referred ass the separation of things that by nature belongs together. In Marx theory of alienation, Marx describes the separation of human’s aspect of their species essence as the result of staying in a population of stratified social class.
Marx theory of economics exists in three to four forms. In capital population from the humanity comes in because the laborer can only show work which is an important feature of own individuality via a personal structure of industrial manufacturing that each laborer is an object. An item and not an individual with worker alienation can occur in the forms of the alienation of the worker from their product.
The capitalist takes in the intellectual labor as well as the industrial producers who make the product. Besides the employees not having control over the design and the productions systems, their labor is conceited to an activity for which they are paid low wages so that the capitalist may have a high return on their investment. The engineers get a salary and the manual laborers of wage and not profit.
Secondly, the alienation of the employee form the acts of manufacturing in capitalists are in two ways, which are pay compulsion and the imposed production satisfied. The worker is forced to undesirable labor at the expenses of their lives and those of family. The workers, therefore, is unhappy and uncontended and feels outside himself in his work. Lastly, the separation of the laborer from their species essence in which human nature is not apart from their activity as a laborer and also comprises of inanimate human potential as an individual.
Marxism, Freedom and the State
According to Bakunin, Anarchism and Marxism differ in ways such as anarchism says that the common people shall be with the help of leadership reduction and with the clouds peasants will use the first section. Marxism says that the redundant proletariat will take the lead section in the revolution. Anarchism kicks out party, and it's important in the revolutionary process while Marxism is confident that revolution can be achieved only via the party. Anarchism will encourage spontaneous mass action and hostile towards political parties which is not the case for Marxism. Anarchism also proposed to any form of participation in state institution including the electoral process that which Marxism opposed. Anarchism maintains that the obligation of the capital will not lead to the abolition of state while Marxism was maintaining that without a previous social revolution the abolition of the state is pointless.
The Bakunin views that the state society would be comprised of revolutionary dictatorship. He also argues that Marxism theory does not lead to the realities of life and facts are separated from the theory. Bakunin indicates that the state will function differently with Marxism as Marxism rules with religion and terms it as a worship science as a goddess. Bakunin rules out Marxism theory on labor and indicates that manual labor is compulsory for all as also he concludes that Marxism has exalted science theory before the social life.
Bakunin also states that Marxism causes privileged cities to dominate over the others that will cause slavery. Bakunin assessment is very much informative though I will differ from some of the counter argument into the Marxism theory that says there can never be a better way to govern a state but only through the rule of the people, by an election of a few members to represent the majority.
Kropotkin on Mutual Aid
According to Kropotkin, Mutual Aid is a fundamental text under the anarchist communism that presents a scientific basis for an alternative to the Marxists’ historical materialism. He considers it as a significant catalytic agent in the scientific study of corporation. Kropotkin describes mutual aid group of people with a certain experience that is the same that assist in helping one another in solving or overcoming challenges. People with similar problems create openness in any challenging conditions through raising some of the questions and later the questions raised are solved, and the challenged persons can be able to overcome the problem. Mutual aid will help in self-determination and self-confidence, this lowers all the tensions and fears, thus it brings togetherness in mutual aid in groups or organizations.
With established organizations of mutual aid in the society like unions, there is an assured provision for good health. Mutual aid usually is the firm foundations of the self-supporting program in that the assist and the assisted most important principle is believed that the knowledge that the more an individual helps he or she is assisted, that is the people that assist most they are also assisted most. Mutual aid practices help in the control of drug abuse and help the people living with HIV/AIDS plus establishing mentally ill and disability centers. The centers will not only help its society, but they give aids also to its neighboring society. Kropotkin’s assessments are some of the greatest ideas since it helps the less fortunate, diseased, drug rehabilitees, mentally ill, feel self-motivated and love makes them feel that are of value and necessary in the society.
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