The Effect of Salt and Sugar on Boiling Point of Water

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The boiling rate of a substance, such as water and additives, are affected by their densities, pressure, the quantity of additive, time taken to heat and the temperature. Additives such as salt, sugar, radiator cooler, super coolant water wetter and others can be added to water during experiments to test their effects on boiling rate as in this case.

Problem Statement: The experiment seeks to determine the importance of additives in car coolant systems. Car engines require cooling for optimum performance. High temperatures in the engine can cause it to knock out. The experiment will provide an approach in which manufacturers of car coolant systems and additives to produce products which ensure effective cooling systems

Literature Review

Water additives refer to minute quantities of a substance added to water to either improve its taste, preserve it or for other experimental reasons. Water is a colorless, naturally available chemical substance covering most of the earth's surface. Some additives in mineral water include calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, oxygen and potassium chloride usually for preservation (Watson, 1992). Boiling rate is the point at which the solution will turn into vapor (Gauntt, 1990). This is a point where the solution changes its state from liquid to gas due to the increased kinetic energy of its molecules (United States, 1997). The boiling point of water can also be changed by adding impurities in the water. Impurities include salt, sugar, and other dissolving molecules. Generally, impurities increase the boiling point of water. A simple explanation of this is that the impurities dilute the concentration of water. The number of molecules that can vaporize at any given temperature decreases. The result is that a higher temperature is required to achieve the same vapor pressure. Concentrated sugar-water solutions that are used for making candies and caramel boil at temperatures exceeding 150 °C. (Watson, 1992)

Experimental Design Steps

The procedures involve;

1. Boiling 500ml of pure water until 100°C and measure the time it takes to reach that point. Repeat it twice for quality assurance. Use this as a control experiment.

2. Add two teaspoons of salt to 500ml of water to make a solution. Record the time taken to boil the solution.

3. Add two teaspoons of sugar to 500ml of water to make a solution. Record the time taken to boil the solution.

4. Heat the solution in a constant supply of heat until it reaches boiling point.

5. Measure the time taken to reach boiling point- When the mixture begins to boil, as noted by large bubbles rising to the top, the kitchen timer is started.

6. Repeat the same experiment twice and note any differences and average it.

7. Repeat the experiment with 2.5 spoons of the additives and observe whether there is a change in the period for which the solution to reach boiling point.

8. Recording findings of the experiments.

9. Analysis of data to generate information to support the thesis statement.

10. Report and recommend.


The reasoning is two tablespoons of the additives call for 500ml of water. Repeating the experiment with 2.5 tablespoons of the same amount of water gives a reasonable estimation of how additives affect the boiling point of water.

Tools and Technologies


 Granulated white sugar

Table salt

 Glass Bowls


 Stove (Natural Gas)

 Kitchen Timer (minutes and seconds)

 Kitchen Thermometer (Degrees Fahrenheit)

 Measuring cups


 Independent variable: the amount of additive added to water, temperature at boiling point

Dependent variable: The time taken to reach the boiling point.

Controlled variables: the amount water, the temperature setting of the stove, Normal atmospheric pressure

Threats reduction to validity

By thoroughly washing all the equipment between additives and then rinsing everything in cold tap water, the experiment assures that contamination or temperature differences won't interfere with the results.

Using the same heating unit of the stove every time controls for any discrepancy between the dial setting and the actual heat produced


The hypothesis in this experiment was that impurities such as sugar and salt increase the boiling point of water.

Process of Data Collection

The time taken to attain the boiling point of water was measured for both sugar and water. Each additive was tested twice and the results averaged. The table below shows the results obtained.

Data Table: Effect of Additives on boiling point of water


First Made Time

Second Made Time

Average Time

Pure water




2 teaspoons sugar




2.5 teaspoons sugar




2 teaspoons salt




2.5 teaspoons salt





The chart shows time taken for water to boil increases with the addition of sugar and salt. Pure water boils at 100 degrees in 3.6mins. However, as the chart shows when two tablespoons of sugar has been added the time increases to 4.25mins and 3.95mins for the same amount of table salt.

Conclusion and Confirmation of Hypothesis

The results shown above confirm that addition of additives such as sugar and salt increases the time taken for water boiling point to be reached. Increasing the concentration of the additives also increases the time taken to boil. A highly concentrated sugar solution will take more time to reach the boiling point than a less concentrated solution. In conclusion, such additives can be efficiently used in car cooling systems as they keep the heat at low levels hence enhancing the engine capacity.


Pilson, M. E. Q. (2013). An introduction to the chemistry of the sea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

United States. & United States. (1997). Pressure suppression containment system for boiling water reactor. Oakland, Calif: United States. Dept. of Energy. Oakland Operations Office.

Watson, P. J., Tuzinski, P. A., & United States. (1992). Study of zeta potential for material particles in chemical additive solutions. Washington, D.C: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines.

October 05, 2023



Scientific Method

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