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Ultra-filtration and diafiltration are filtration techniques that play an important role in separation processes involving microscopic matters. However, in this situation, the focus would be on controlling the movement of two liquids, one containing protein gels and permeating through a membrane and the other pure water (Cambridge University Press, & Foley, 2013).
For each run, calculate and map the mass or volumetric flow rates.
Determine the influence of pressure drop variation on flux volume. (The cross flow filter pressure decrease is the mean of the retentate side pressures.)
An increase in pressure drop results in an increase in flux rate
If you can, use the data to estimate the membrane permeability, Lp (ms‐1psi‐1)
Using the data with the Protein (cross‐flow)
Plot the mass or volumetric flow rate over time
Group2 Valve Closed
With open valve
Group2 Valve Retention
Group3 Partly Closed
Compare this with the flow rate when water is used.
When water is used, the flow rate is higher than when protein -containing solution is used. Protein in the solution is responsible for the slowing down of filtration process.
Discuss any apparent differences between the two in terms of the theory of cross flow filtration.
The design of a cross flow filter is such that it reduces fouling along the membranes hence accommodate increasing flow rates over longer periods (Finkelstein, & Davison, 2012). Where water is used, fouling occurs hence resulting in decline in flow rates at some level.
If possible, perform a mass balance on the proteins in the cross‐flow systems to determine recovery. Explain any protein loss if it is observed.
Interpret the images of the protein gels
In the case where pressure is not used, protein gels settle on the membrane resulting in slowing in flow rate. In the case that pressure is used, the protein gels settle on the membrane at a slower rate hence does not affect the flow rate (Subramanian, 2012). The second image also indicates that more protein gels have been removed hence flow rate through the membrane will increase.
For the dia-filtration apparatus
Plot the following over time for each run
Group 2 With Valve Retention
Group 3 With valve Partially closed
Filtrate collected (ml)
Group 2 with Valve Retention
Group 3 valve partially closed
Group 2 with valve retention
Group 3 valve partially closed
From this experiment, presence of solutes like proteins in a medium affects the filtration flow rate hence as more and ,more protein gels is removed, the flow rate keep increasing.
Cambridge University Press, & Foley, G., (2013). Membrane filtration: a problem solving
approach with MATLAB, Cambridge University Press.
Finkelstein, M., & Davison, B. H. (2012). Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals: Proceedings
of the Nineteenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals Held May 4-8.
1997, at Colorado Springs, Colorado. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
Subramanian, G. (2012). Biopharmaceutical production technology. Weinheim : Wiley-VCH
Verlag GmbH & Co.,
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