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In comparison to other nations, the United States has the largest immigrant population in the world. Unlawful immigrants who lack citizenship make up about 3.6 percent of the country's total population. The risk of deportation, the need for additional verification for loans, the absence of a driver's license and permitted work credentials are just a few of the difficulties these illegal immigrants must overcome. The Deferred Action for Childhood Arrival (DACA) immigration policy was announced in June 2012 with the intention of granting work permits and deferring deportation for undocumented immigrants (Pope, 2016). President Obama directed the Department of Homeland Security to accept applications from unapproved immigrants, which resulted in the introduction of the immigration policy. The authorized persons would be provided a two-year work authorization and relief from deportation which was renewable every two years.
The primary objective of the study is to establish the effects of eliminating the immigration policy, on the beneficiaries and the United States of America. DACA has opened employment opportunities to approximately 800,000 undocumented young immigrants. Therefore, elimination of DACA will have tremendous effects not only on the recipients but the state as a whole. Statistics show that if DACA were to be ended the total Gross Domestic Product for the United States would be reduced by 433.4 billion dollars over the succeeding ten years (Patler and Cabrera, 2015). Similarly, the cost of deportation for the undocumented immigrants is highly expensive and would cost the United States a lot of money. The introduction of the immigration policy has helped curb significant challenges faced by the unauthorized immigrants based on their economic status as well improving the GDP of the Country. Hence, the study is crucial in determining the impacts of eliminating DACA not only on the recipients but the country as a whole.
The United States is home to roughly eleven million unauthorized immigrants. It documents the most substantial number of unauthorized immigrants than any other country globally. The undocumented immigrants experience quite some challenges as opposed to legal immigrants and the United States citizens. These obstacles experienced entail; risk of repatriation, illegal job documents, inadequate banking and loan credentials as well as driver’s permits. They contribute to the increase in unemployment rates among the undocumented immigrants, low levels of education and the shallow level wages (Uwemedimo et al., 2017). This necessitated the introduction of the DACA, an immigration policy declared by President Obama during his prosecutorial discretion.
DACA is an immigration program for the eligible undocumented youth who came into the country still youngsters under sixteen years of age and under the age of thirty-one by the year 2012 in the sixth month. Those who meet the criteria are provided with a two-year relief from deportation as well as authorized work documentation. Similarly, they are also availed with legal social security numbers that help them access banking services and building of credit histories. They also legally obtain the driver’s license except in states such as Arizona.
Research studies show that there has been growth in labor force engagement and a consequent reduction in unemployment. DACA has established many openings for recipients to access better-paying jobs and also an increase in wages of the bottom wage distribution. According to Wong et al., (2013), the average hourly income of recipients increased by forty-five percent while sixty-nine percent of individuals surveyed confirmed acquiring a better paying job after DACA status. DACA has also expanded education opportunities for the undocumented immigrants both at the local and at the state level. Evidence shows that the policy compelled exceedingly 250,000 qualified immigrants into acquiring GED authentication which is a necessity into the DACA program.
The DACA program also assists the country from the fees imposed on the application, work authorization application, and other biometrics. The beneficiaries are required to pay a total amount of four hundred and ninety-five dollars for the whole process of application, and the overall revenue generated from the eligible unauthorized immigrant has amounted to three hundred and sixty-six million dollars since the implementation of DACA (Crouse, 2017). Similarly, the increase in the labor force also helps improve the cumulative Gross Domestic Product of the country boosting the economic stats of the country.
Therefore, eliminating the DACA program will cause huge impacts not only on the recipients but also on the country as a whole. It would mean a total annual loss of 1.1 billion dollars in states such as North Carolina as well as a loss of 433.4 billion dollars in a ten year period for the United States of America. This would reduce the productivity of the nation both at the local and national level eventually decreasing the social, economic status of the country (Gonzales et al., 2014). Moreover, eliminating the DACA beneficiaries would result in a reduction in tax contributions by 24.6 billion dollars and a creation of 3.4 billion dollars turnover costs leading to the dismissal of employees by their employees. On an individual level, it is evident that DACA program has enabled an increase in wages for the low-income contribution and creation of job opportunities. Unauthorized immigrants face twice as much in poverty compared to the United States citizens. Studies show that DACA has reduced the poverty level of undocumented immigrants by 38 percent. Therefore, ending the DACA program would exacerbate poverty levels for the recipients and lowering the Gross Domestic Product of the country. Dismissing of DACA recipients will also cost the US approximately two point six million dollars over a succeeding timeframe of 10 years, in addition to the eight thousand three hundred and eighteen dollars to deport each person.
In relation to unauthorized immigrants, another policy, Immigration Reform, and Control Act supported a citizenship passage route to about two point eight million undocumented foreigners back in 1986. Research shows that IRCA increased wages for the undocumented immigrants, education enhancement, and reduction in crime rates. The DACA initiative only offers temporary freedom from deportation and does not guarantee citizenship.
The study plans to use the survey data collection tools through the use of questionnaires. It will also employ the snowball sampling method as the best practice procedure and aims at using the SPSS data analysis software.
The hypothesis of this research proposal states that elimination of DACA will reduce the beneficiary’s probability of working in the United States thus weakening the American Economy.
The significant variables in the quantitative study will include eligible undocumented immigrants and ineligible undocumented immigrants. This will help analyses the eligible and ineligible before and after the implementation of DACA. The study will also examine other DACA outcome variables such as age, working hours, individual’s income and individual school choices (Dewaele, 2012). These variables will help determine the impacts of ending DACA for the recipients and the nation as a whole. The data used will be from the American Community Survey (ACS), which often gathers information regarding migration, income, employment, educational attainment and other characteristics.
Proposed Data Collection Method
The study will use survey data collection techniques. There are some methods involved in the use of survey, and they include; telephone surveys, face-to-face surveys, and mobile surveys. The study will use open-ended questionnaires as a method of survey data collection. The questionnaire will involve a series of questions for the immigrants who are eligible and non-eligible for the DACA program (Orkin, 2014). This survey will help evaluate the impact of eliminating DACA immigration policy. Alongside survey, the study will also incorporate the American Community Survey data for immigrants before June 2012 and after implementation of DACA.
Proposed Time Design
The study expects to conduct a three-month time frame for all the acquisitions that include; preparation of survey items, prepare survey sites for study, administering questionnaires to the target population, data entry, and analysis of data.
The target population will compose of immigrants between the ages of 18-35. The sample target will mainly be conducted in California as it hosts the largest number of unofficial expatriates in the US. The expected participants will be a hundred and five immigrants.
Proposed Sampling Method
There are different categories used in sampling methods. They compose of probable and non-probable sampling approaches. Under the probability sampling techniques, various techniques include; simple random, cluster, stratified, systematic and multistage testing approaches. Non-probability approaches compose of snowball test technique (Sgier, 2012). The research proposal will employ snowball non-probability technique. This technique will involve a nomination of participants by initial informants who meet the desired criteria which would probably contribute to a particular study. The use of snowball sampling technique is efficient for this study as American Community Survey data does not usually differentiate undocumented and documented immigrants.
Proposed Data Analysis Method
Data Analysis is the collation and organization of data to draw meaningful clarification and enable the formation of a sound conclusion. There are two types of data analysis techniques which include quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative methods focus on the analysis of data collected through the use of questionnaires and surveys. Hence the study will use experimental data analysis method by use of the SPSS tools (Bryman, 2015). The SPSS is an easy software used in the analysis of data and management of statistical tests. It enables researchers to edit data, create tables and charts, manage inferential statistics and save data and output.
To complete research by the research guidelines, ethics partake a crucial part of the research proposal. It is vital to establish trust with the research participants, and this will become ensured by providing confidentiality of all responses from the respondents. This will be done through careful explanation of the aims and goals of the research to the respondents while ensuring professionalism and no biases (Niebuhr, 2013). Moreover, respect for the participant’s responses will be guaranteed, and the willingness to participate in the research will not become coerced. Personal ethics are essential in every person’s life not only in businesses or academic work but every step of an individual’s life including societal life. Therefore, I declare to use the two values that guide my day to day life that is honesty and Integrity. These values will direct me in my research proposal and also guide me when in contact with participants. I will strive to provide honest and truthful work.
In conclusion, DACA has protected nearly 800,000 undocumented immigrants from the risk of deportation and has also provided accreditations for a work permit. This has shown tremendous improvement in the recipient’s life as well as raised the economic status of the country. The recipients have well-paying jobs thus reducing the poverty level of the unauthorized immigrants. A vast number of benefits have been accrued from the creation of the DACA program. However, after the President Obama’s term, politicians are now on the verge of ending the DACA act. The unauthorized immigrants now live in fear of the consequences of termination of the policy. The impacts will not only befell the recipients but also on the economy of America as a whole. Research proves that the immigrants provide the highest number of the labor force in the United States. This means that termination of work authorization permits will reduce the likelihood of immigrants working in the United States as well as lag the American economy. Billions of Gross Domestic Product will become lost in the succeeding years, and a lot of expenditure will also be involved in the deportation of all the undocumented immigrants. Therefore the research proposal will aim at finding the impacts of ending the DACA immigration program on an individual level and the nation. Limitations of the study will involve the allocated time limit for the proposal.
Bryman, A. (2015). Social research methods. Oxford university press.
CROUSE, V. (2017). The Impact of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) in the Tarheel State.
Dewaele, J. M. (2012). Personality: Personality traits as independent and dependent variables. In Psychology for Language Learning (pp. 42-57). Palgrave Macmillan UK.
Gonzales, R. G., Terriquez, V., & Ruszczyk, S. P. (2014). Becoming DACAmented: Assessing the short-term benefits of deferred action for childhood arrivals (DACA). American Behavioral Scientist, 58(14), 1852-1872.
Niebuhr, R. (2013). Moral man and immoral society: A study in ethics and politics. Westminster John Knox Press.
Orkin, K. (2014). Data Collection Methods. In Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research (pp. 1430-1432). Springer Netherlands.
Patler, C., & Cabrera, J. A. (2015). From undocumented to DACAmented: Impacts of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program
Pope, N. G. (2016). The effects of DACAmentation: the impact of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals on unauthorized immigrants. Journal of Public Economics, 143, 98-114.
Sgier, L. (2012). Qualitative data analysis.
Uwemedimo, O. T., Monterrey, A. C., & Linton, J. M. (2017). A Dream Deferred: Ending DACA Threatens Children, Families, and Communities. Pediatrics, e20173089.
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