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The changes in the structure of the human population are conventionally projected and modeled by stratifying in terms of sex and size. The research paper presents numerous aspect of human demographics. In addition, it will link human demographics and economic well-being of a nation. The paper will rely on the research that was conducted by various scholars in forming a detailed conclusion.
demography, fertility, and population.
Human demography is the study of the development, structure, and size of the human population (Vekarić, 2015). It can be taken to be the mathematics of individuals, and it often offers the best approach to the study of human development in the world. Demography mainly focuses on the distribution, composition, and size across space as well as the process, through which the human populations change. Migration, deaths, and births are the major components of demography, jointly producing population change and stability. The population of human beings can be described in terms of certain basic features-household status, family, sex, and age. The features of the population’s economic and social context such as wealth, income, religion, ethnicity, occupation, education, and language can also be used when defining demography. It remains to be the central component of the social change and societal contexts. The paper will investigate the human demographic trends and its and effects on the environment. It will offer an insight into the demographic factors influences the quality of life.
The research will aim at answering the various question such as:
How do the demographic changes affect the social and economic well-being?
What are the economic and social implication of the demographic changes, though, for instance, international or rural to urban migration?
What impact does the demographic structure have in poverty level?
Haveman & Wilson (2018) note that human demographics is an ongoing trend in almost all parts of the globe, though in certain parts the declines in fertility and mortality rate are slower when compared to others. The inability of certain countries to create accessible healthcare services keep the child and infant mortality rates higher. Just like the links between capital, income and demography can set in motion an upward spiral of development and growth, so can negative effect on the system lead to poverty demography traps. In the rural setup mainly in the developing nations, there is a need for larger families to act as a social capital. The poor health care services can lead to higher infant mortality rates (Haveman & Wilson, 2018). The couples in various regions can be encouraged to have more children with an intention of targeting the correct number of surviving children.
According Carmo & Santos (2013), population rate accelerated after the Second World War; the rise can be attributed to the sustained and substantial declines in the mortality rate that were made possible because of the best medical facilities available as well as improved sanitation, nutrition, and health. However, the desire to reduce the infant mortality rate has remained uneven in most parts of the world. The author also states that the increasing population has an impact on income redistribution among the poor especially among the less fortunate especially in areas where there is land inequality, harmful agricultural practices and weak institutional and market response. The rising population also affects the poor in the society because of the upward rise in the consumer prices and depression wages (Carmo & Santos, 2013). In certain nations such as Thailand where the human population has been declining there is a beneficial effect on the children education that appears substantial. However, the author notes that all nations that have experienced a slower population growth have had improvements in education level. In nations where the education level remains to be substantially weakened, even the smallest population’s presents might never benefit from it.
Valentin (2012) notes that poverty level that is witnessed have negative consequences such as environmental degradation. Poverty can also be a causal factor that makes people migrate into marginal areas that are unsuitable to livelihood. The author suggests that policies are vital in mediating the relationship between natural resources and population (Valentin, 2012). Some of the policies that expand the income opportunities of persons are especially important to provide various forms of livelihood possibilities.
According to between the mid-twentieth and mid-nineteenth centuries the more developed regions on the globe underwent demographic transitions from low growth demographics, high mortality and high ferity to low growth demographic regions, low mortality and low fertility. The author notes that the effort to comprehend the determinants of the transition of mortality and fertility to low levels are critical to demography.
According to Neels, Murphy, Ní Bhrolcháin & Beaujouan, 2017 the increasing availability of the survey information and data technology that make that makes it necessary to gain an individual understanding various data have facilitated the convergence between the demographic methods as well as other methods of statistical analysis (Neels, Murphy, Ní Bhrolcháin & Beaujouan, 2017). Fincher, 2011 states that the global human demographics began in the 19th century with a reduction in the death rates. The demographics transiting in Latin America, Asia, and Africa started later and are still taking place. By 2005 Latin America has a total population of 0.56 billion after had closer to 0.92 billion persons, Asia had a population of 3.94 persons. The population in the continents is expected to continue rising.
Mirzaie & Darabi, 2017 states the global population tends to rise because of a birth rate that is far much that the death rate. Mirzaie & Darabi, 2017 predicts that the human population will continue to increase and it will reach about 9.2 billion persons by 2050 (Mirzaie & Darabi, 2017). The author states that the demographic factors that will contribute to the increase are the declining mortality and a high fertility rate. Fincher, 2011 notes that the large expansion of the number of human numbers and the changes in the age structure is likely to have an impact on the environment, the economy and the entire society.
The research offered a compelling evidence on the relationship between demographic changes and poverty levels. The researchers indicate that children are a financial burden in the fertility setting. They unanimously show that kids tend to consume more than they produce. In this case, the birth of an additional child reduces the standards of living for other members of the family. Adequate income gives people the incentive for protective and limits the negative impact on the children.
The role of education has also been emphasizing. Better education implies that women and men have a lower mortality, and their kids have a higher and better chance of survival. It is indicated that women who are better educated have fewer children. The education also affects the individual’s empowerment and capabilities. It is important to make investments in education as every nation is determined to reduce poverty.
Every nation around the world is at different stages of the demographic transition phase. The demographic transition not only affects the growth of the population but also comes with various structural transitions. Most of the nations have attempted to bring down the birth rate with the intention of raising the standards of living. However, it is important that nations invest more in quality education. It is an essential component in all aspects of human development. The empowerment function of education is one of the greatest goals.
Carmo, R., & Santos, S. (2013). Social Capital and Socio-demographic Changes: From Non-differentiation to Multifocalisation. Sociologia Ruralis, 54(2), 186-205. doi: 10.1111/soru.12027
Ehrlich P.R. & Ehrlich A.H. (2009) The Dominant Animal: Human Evolution and the Environment. Washington: Island Press.
FINCHER, R. (2011). Population Growth in Australia: Views and Policy Talk for Possible Futures. Geographical Research, 49(3), 336-347. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-5871.2011.00697.x
Haveman, R., & Wilson, K. (2018). Toward Understanding the Relationship of Temporal Changes in Demographic Structure to Changes in U.S. Poverty. Finanzarchiv: Public Finance Analysis, 74(1), 144-157. doi: 10.1628/001522118x15123891774237
Mirzaie, M., & Darabi, S. (2017). Population Aging in Iran and Rising Health Care Costs. Salmand, 12(2), 156-169. doi: 10.21859/sija-1202156
Neels, K., Murphy, M., Ní Bhrolcháin, M., & Beaujouan, É. (2017). Rising Educational Participation and the Trend to Later Childbearing. Population And Development Review, 43(4), 667-693. doi: 10.1111/padr.12112
Valentin, K. (2012). The Role of Education in Mobile Livelihoods: Social and Geographical Routes of Young Nepalese Migrants in India. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 43(4), 429-442. doi: 10.1111/j.1548-1492.2012.01195.x
Vekarić, N. (2015). The impact of social status on demographic changes: Ragusan nobility and process of demographic transition. Dubrovnik Annals, 19, 57-70. doi: 10.21857/ypn4oc6gr9
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