Gender Inequality and health

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Many important factors, such as intersectionality, have been studied to conceptualize the framework regarding the complexities surrounding health disparities between men and women in the quest for a thorough understanding of the effects on health resulting from the connection between gender inequalities. In the context of intersectionality, which highlights the prospects of the varied and flexible social environments as well as the interrelated social practices in the fabrication of gender disparities, issues of health and gender have all been examined. The article, therefore, establishes how these elements interrelate to bring social impacts on people’s perspectives concerning the dissimilarity between women and men hence scrutinizing the effects of intersectionality and raising crucial questions for debate and dialogue.

Additionally, this article seeks to give an illustration on the conceptualization into the history of race and citizenship about the social inequalities. In the elaboration of this framework, the report provides a comprehensive proposition of some the comparison in disparities between women and men from the political, social or economic view. Also discussed is the annotated bibliography of the sources used in gathering the article's information.

Intersectionality Background Concerning Women and Men’s Health

Studies reveal that gender and health, as well as men's health and women's health, not only undermine the empirical efforts but also undercut the theoretical efforts in wholly addressing the associated health inequalities. Therefore, emphasis on matters regarding sex and gender focus on the dissimilarities between men and women. This explains the reason why so much information still keeps on to be gathered, systematized and analyzed exclusively around issues of gender and sex differences yet the resemblances between men and women are explicitly evident. Research further support this theory by indicating that the distinctions between these two groups of persons are often as considerable if not more as between men and women and that men are regularly perceived as the subservient of their women counterparts (Hankivsky (2012).

Also indicated is the fact that women sometimes exercise their supremacy over some men. However, there are still several reviews concerning gender and sex-based dissimilarities that produced since previous studies have not exhaustively elucidated the matters. Some frameworks pursue to take account of considerations of both gender and sex, for instance, the GSBE (Gender and Sex-Based Exploration) too which was established in Canada. The tool proposes some of the guidelines in the line of cross-examination that highlights the scrutiny of variations and resemblances among men and women.

As such, the GSBE tool emphasizes the need to be concerned with issues regarding differences and correspondences of men and women hence begging these relevant questions to be asked: Do men and women have a similar susceptibility to respiratory illness due to smoking? Or do both men and women face the same danger of being infected by the HIV/AIDS illness due to sexual intercourse? From this perspective, the distinctions that are fashioned and created by features outside gender and sex are considered to be of a subordinate in their prominence (Hankivsky (2012). Given the above explanations, it is sensible to articulate that the intersectionality framework regarding the gender and health or women and men’s health makes apparent the significance of fresh methods in framing the complexity concerning social inequalities and human life.

Gender and Citizenship

On the other hand, studies further reveal the correlation between citizenship and gender issues with specific insights on the challenges that women used to face in certain parts of Europe before attaining complete citizenship privileges. Countries such those in the Eastern European regions with the so-named evolution to social equality reveal their past accounts of the increased political, social and economic inequalities amongst the women and men (Leys Stepan (1998). For instance, the disparity concerning citizenship in these countries was apparent since women were often under-represented in the political realm (national governments and other related entities had less than 30% women compared to the men folks). In the economic domain, men earned more salary even if they were holding the same positions in the office or performing the same type of work.

Moreover, from the sexual, familial and social perspective, women, in general, did not possess similar degrees of autonomy of the self as compared to their male colleagues (Leys Stepan (1998). There exist profound scholarly work that supports these facts as discussed in the article. A comprehensive level of research has been carried out on this topic and can help us find out its relevance in the context at hand.

Annotated Bibliography

Hankivsky, O. (2012). Women’s health, men’s health, and gender and health: Effects of intersectionality. Social science & medicine, 74(11), 1712-1720.

The author concisely outlines various areas of concerns about gender and health. These include gender and health differences as well as the dissimilarities between men’s and women’s health. The authors elaborate these social inequalities from the perspective of intersectionality where frameworks such as the use of GSBE tools have been used in pursuit to take account of considerations of both gender and sex.

However, the bone of contention on the scholarly work cited above is the use of assumptions in the explanation of gender differences. Over the past years, many theories about gender differences are based on perceived assumptions. There is a missing link between the authors' interpretation of how health differences are caused by social factors and how actually gender, and race link based on the works of other authors such as Saha, S, and Taggart, S. in their actions, cited as Saha, s, Taggart, et al., (2017).

Nonetheless, this book is of much relevance to our subject in that we can get to know how gender affects health based on gender differences and how other gender factors affect social interactions still based on gender differences. Further, the authors have also helped us to link health issues to social factors and the role policies play in shaping these factors.

Another crucial source is;

Leys Stepan, N. (1998). Race, gender, science, and citizenship. Sex & History, 10(1), 26-52.

The author focuses the study on the issues concerning gender and citizenship outlining the facts from the past accounts of the political, social and economic inequalities that were imposed on women in the so-called established democracies of the Eastern European countries. The aim of the author, therefore, is to provide a background regarding the political influence that was highly attributed to women’s position in the society.

Though the author does not exhaust all those variables concerning the social inequalities, it is still prudent to articulate the several issues about gender and citizenship has comprehensively been illustrated. Since the research was conducted at a country level, the provided evidence can be deemed as reliable and consistent hence contributing to the study’s relevance to the topic.

Both of these authors' point of view corresponds to a greater extent with my findings regarding the topic of gender inequality. Therefore, the article is of much help to me since I through it I have learned new aspects regarding the gender inequality issue. For instance, I have learned the dynamics of the gender inequality issues including some of the political, social and economic drives that profoundly contribute to this aspect of social imbalance.

In conclusion, having read carefully and comprehended the university's policy on plagiarism and intellectual integrity, I with all due respect, affirm that this work is my original work. The citations and the annotated bibliography included are from trusted sources which are further accredited by the university and have relevance placed on them regarding the topic that I had chosen. Finally, permission is at this moment granted by me to the university staff, to verify the sources and also every information I have included and cited in this work.

April 06, 2023


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