Giant Squid’s

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Describe the taxonomy (Phylum, Class, and Order) and species status of the Giant Squid (Architeuthis sanctipauli).

The Giant squid (Architeuthis sanctipauli) is a mesopelagic dwelling squid that is both mysterious and strange in form. Due to deep-sea gigantism, the squid grows to an immense scale for a cephalopod, dwarfed only by the gigantic squid, Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni in dimension and mass. The aim of this study is to go over the taxonomy, classification, habitat, vertical and geographical distribution of the squid.

Architeuthis sanctipauli belongs to the kingdom Animalia and is classified as a Cephalopoda in the Mollusca phylum. Moreover, A. sanctipauli further belongs to the subclass Coleoidea i.e. shell-less cephalopods, and further in the order Oegopsida where the family Architeuthidae falls. The classification of Architeuthis as a family is unclear with many species descriptions deduced from singular and often partial specimens. The latest indications though, point to giant squids belonging to a singular species. This single species point of view rests on genetic studies of samples taken all over the world analyzing molecular similarities and concluding that only a single species is valid. This infers that the subspecies A.dux, A. martens and A. sanctipauli all are the same species.

As with other squid, Architeuthis has a torso (mantle), two longer hunting tentacles, and eight other “arms”. The fins of this squid are small and ovoid while the arms are quite long as are the tentacles. These tentacles display a distinct club like form. Often misreported in the past at lengths exceeding 19 meters, giant squid are more likely to reach 15 meters (females) and 10 meters (males) upon adulthood. This length is from mantle to tips of the longer tentacles. The large size of giant squid and their strange look might be the source of their association with numerous mariners’ mysteries and myths.

Architeuthis’ vertical distribution is at depths between 300 m and 1000m suggesting a deep-sea habitat. Further knowledge of sperm whale (giant squids’ main predator) foraging behavior lends credence to this assessment. Their capture occurs in both mid-water and sea bottom trawls indicating a wide habitat range. Geographically, Architeuthis occur in all parts of the world favoring continental and island slopes and appearing more sparingly in fully tropical and Polar Regions.

What is the common name for Architeuthis sanctipauli?

Giant squid

Name the first three websites that appear on your search (name and URL). Describe what they have?

1). ITIS Report

This website is about Architeuthis sanctipauli taxonomy and nomenclature. Also including taxonomic hierarchy.

2). Tree of life web project:

This website is about Architeuthis sanctipauli Introduction, Characteristics, Nomenclature, Life History, Distribution.

3). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

This website is about Architeuthis sanctipauli Assessment Information, Taxonomy, Geographic Range, Habitat and Ecology.

What is the geographical distribution of this species?

This species is widely distributed all over the world, inhabiting mesopelagic waters along island as well as continental slopes. Due to distribution by global ocean currents of squid larvae, the range of giant squid is worldwide. Moreover, their rarity in extreme Polar Regions and the high tropics indicates their preference of temperate waters. Records of specimens are from the North Atlantic Ocean, including the oceanic islands of the Azores and Madeira, northern British Isles, Norway, and Newfoundland; the South Atlantic i.e. southern African waters; the North Pacific near Japan, and the southwestern Pacific around Australia and New Zealand; in all the Southern Ocean.

How many total references are there on this subject?

Total eight references on this subject.

 N H Landman; J K Cochran; R Cerrato, 2004. Habitat and age of the giant squid (Architeuthis sanctipauli) inferred from isotopic analyses. Marine Biology, v144 n4 (Apr 2004) 685-691.

 N.H Landman; J K Cochran; R Cerrato; J Mark; C F E Roper; C C Lu, Habitat and age of the giant squid (Architeuthis sanctipauli) inferred from isotopic analyses. Marine Biology, v144 n4 (Apr 2004) 685-691.

 Salit Kark; Eran Brokovich; Tessa Mazor; Noam Levin, Emerging conservation challenges and prospects in an era of offshore hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. Conservation Biology, v29 n6 (December 2015): 1573-1585.

Henry Fountain, Unlocking myths of giant squid. International Herald Tribune, (May 6, 2004) 11.

Henry Fountain, Giant Squid, Tall Tales and Truth. New York Times, (May 4, 2004) F.1

Henry Fountain, TRIMMING SOME TALL TALES ABOUT AN ELUSIVE CREATURE.  Pittsburgh Post - Gazette, (May 10, 2004) A-8.

Spanish, Un Vistazo. Reforma, (Mar 26, 2008) 7.

 Henry Fountain, Lurking below: myth. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, (May 17, 2004) 2G

Learning to send professional e-mails: Compose an example email in your report.

Dear Mr. or Ms. _______________,

I hope all is well. My name is Andy, Lan. I had fun reading your Books. I know we agreed that your opinions on these books, but I think that I still have some questions request your answer. Could you please explain “XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX” for me?

I am also interested in learning the importance of report from your project. What do you think makes marine science lab report professionally?

Thank you for taking the time to answer my questions and I look forward to hearing from you.


Andy Lan

Tell me which of the references on your search list are at the library.

Tree of life web project.

What is the name of this author? How many papers does this author have?

The name of the author is Clyde F.E. Roper (born 1937) and he is a graduate of Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky. He is a zoologist and is responsible for organizing numerous expeditions to New Zealand in pursuit of research into giant squid. He has one book on the topic i.e. Enoploteuthis anapsis, a New Species of Enoploteuthid Squid (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida) from the Atlantic Ocean.

The Second Author search from Library is Henry Fountain. He is the writer of “Unlocking myths of giant squid” and has four papers in the online library, Jacksonvile university. has 4 papers in the online Library, Jacksonville University.

Exercise 2

Part 1

Describe the mangrove snapper (Lutjanus griseus) taxonomy (Phylum, Class, and Order) and species description, habitat and fishing regulations in the Atlantic for the species. (Cite References you used)

The Gray or Mangrove Snapper is an abundant West Atlantic fish with the scientific name Lutjanus griseus. Well distributed in the western Atlantic, this fish ranges from the southeastern US coast through the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea and all the way south to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This fish is highly abundant in the range it is native to and is of “least concern” on the IUCN Red List of threatened species (Lindeman, Anderson and Carpenter).

Lutjanus griseus’ taxonomy places it in the phylum Chordata and further under the class Actinopterygii i.e. ray finned fishes. Moreover, L. griseus falls in the order Perciformes (Perch like fishes) and then the family Lutjanidae that consists of it and other species of snappers. This Snapper is commonly greyish red though this can range from a dull copper to more bright red. The maximum observed length of the fish is 89.0cm though most specimens top out at 40.0cm. The Maximum published weight of an L.griseus specimen is 20kgs and the oldest specimen was at least 21 years old (Lutjanus griseus).

Concerning habitat, this fish species prefers warmer coastal waters and sometimes-estuarine areas swimming at depths from one to 600 feet. Further if found offshore these Snapper species likes coral and solid bottom habitats that may feature rocky outcrops, ledges, and wrecks as shelter for adults. Areas in south Florida record occurrence of mangrove snapper in estuarine habitats such as mangrove roots. Large schools of L. griseus are common at depths of 99 feet to 263 feet below the surface. This fish is a common food fish that is popular in its native range in the commercial fishing industry (Lindeman, Anderson and Carpenter).

Due to the popularity of the various species of snappers in the industrial fishing sector of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission regulates their exploitation. Regulations vary from Gulf fishing sites to Atlantic fishing locations and further from state waters to federal waters. Gulf state waters are within nine nautical miles of the shore while the range is from shore to three nautical miles for Atlantic state waters. Table 1 below shows the minimum size and daily bag limits governing the quantity of snapper harvestable in both Gulf and Atlantic waters. There is no closed season on the harvesting of Gray snapper and fishing is open year round (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission).


State: 10" TL

Federal: 12" TL 

State: 5 per person within the 10 snapper aggregate bag limit

Federal: 10 per person within the 10 snapper aggregate bag limit

 Open year-round

Table 1.

Part 2; Lab Report

Which site has the highest density (number of fish/m2) of fish?

As Table 1, above demonstrates, the density of Mangrove Snapper across ten sites on the St. Johns River, NE, FL, varies widely across ten sample sites. Based on the mean density of fish calculated over these ten areas after five sampling repetitions, site J demonstrates the highest density of Lutjanus griseus at 133.4 fish per square meter.

Do you think that the density of fish is different between site D and E? Why or why not?

The density of fish at the sites D and E are different, demonstrated best by the mean values at sites D and E; 25.4 and 43.6 respectively. The temperature at site D is 200C and at site, E is 220C. The salinity at site D is 23 and at site, E is 25 respectively. Though the turbidity at both the sites D and E is same, the factors like temperature and salinity affect the density of fish population and therefore, difference in the mean is observable at sites D and E. Site E has more fish going by the mean fish density per square meter.

Construct graphs based on the density of fish and environmental factors.

Graph One Showing Mean Lutjanus griseus density in comparison to changes in Temperature.

Graph Two Illustrating the level of Salinity against the Mean Lutjanus griseus density.

Graph Three showing turbidity in comparison to The mean density of Lutjanus griseus.

Does there appear to be a relationship between fish density and any of the measured environmental factors? If so, what is it?

The environmental factors appear to have varying effects on Lutjanus griseus density. Notably, the Turbidity with its constant level throughout the sampling sites seems to have least effect on snapper densities. The relationship between the temperature and mean fish density requires more interrogation, though it is plausible that since they are cold blooded they will thrive more in warmer temperatures. Apparently, the mean fish density shows a close relationship to the salinity level with a positive correlation demonstrated between them.

If there is an observed relationship, can we say that the environmental factor is responsible for changes in fish density? Why or why not?

With a keen study of the graphs, one environmental factor highly influences the fish density of mangrove snapper, salinity. Increase of levels Salinity, the factor under consideration, also follows with increase in Lutjanus griseus mean density across sites. Hence, it is fitting to attribute it to the varying levels fish density. The second graph relates salinity of water with mean fish population. According to this, the mean fish population rises with increasing salinity. Fish in site 'J' survive in highest salinity range and show highest density.

Are there differences in the overall size of fish between Sites G and J? What are they?

We take the range average as 2.5, 5, and 7.5 and so on. Then we calculate the average description sizes for sites J and G. The following is the results obtained

It is clear that the average lengths in both the sites in quite different. Site G has high values in the range 0-10 but site J has no values in that range. Site J has maximum size range of 21-25 whereas Site G has very low values in that range. So, all of this accounts for significant different in the sizes at the two sites. Site J has more numerous larger Lutjanus griseus than site G. Fittingly it is appropriate the Site J displays bigger fish specimens than site G.

What other inferences can you make about the differences between the fish populations of these two sites?

The inferences this exercise draws regarding L.griseus’ population on the St. Johns River are:

The first graph implies that increased water temperature effects fish population. The graph is rising which indicates that mean fish population is rising with temperature. It is important to note that fish are poikilothermic animals. Their body temperature changes with the surrounding temperature. According to the graph, the optimum temperature for fish survival in this area is 22 degree C.

The second graph relates salinity of water with mean fish population. According to this, the mean fish population rises with increasing salinity. Fish in site 'J' survive in highest salinity range and this site features the highest mean Mangrove snapper population densities.

Works Cited

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. 2016. Web. 1 March 2017. .

Lindeman, K, et al. Lutjanus griseus. 2016. Web. 1 March 2017. .

Lutjanus griseus. Ed. R Froese and D Pauly. 10 2016. World Wide Web electronic publication. Web. 1 March 2017. .

December 08, 2022

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