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Health Promotion Planning and Evaluation (HCS412)

Week 1 Assignment 2 Health Behavior Theories
Follow the instructions to complete each section of the worksheet below. Use the Ashford Writing Center's APA style guidelines to cite your sources.
The Social-Ecological Model (SEM) is the first section.
Create a Social-Ecological Model.
In your own words, define the Social-Ecological Model. Direct quotations from other sources will be rejected.
(The Social-Ecological Model is a framework for understanding the environmental and personal factors that influence a person's behavior.) The term "culture and ecology" implies that the model explains how personal and environmental factors influence behavior.
Label and Explain Each Level of the Social-Ecological Model Below is a diagram of the Social Ecological Model. Label each level of the model.


Explain each level of the Social Ecological Model in your own words. Direct quotes from outside sources will not be accepted.

Level 1 Label: (Individual level)
Description: (This level is a representation of the person who have the possibility of being influenced by the factors contributing to a particular health problem. The factors can be biological, personal, historical and social. Here, the individual becomes aware of what influences their beliefs and attitude toward a particular health issue. Therefore, the prevention strategies at this level aim at promoting the beliefs, attitudes as well as the behaviors to ultimately stop the health issue. Approaches such as educating and provision of life skills are applied)

Level 2 Label: (Interpersonal level)
Description: (It is also known as the relationship level that considers the activities that take place at the interpersonal level where close relationships with the possibility of increasing the risk of experiencing a health problem are examined. The actions here aim at changing the behavior of an individual by influencing their cultural and social norms as well as defeating the barriers at individual level. The sources of information for supporting the individual at this level include community health workers, family, patient navigators, health care providers and friends. The prevention strategies aim at reducing the health problem, providing skills to deal with health issue and promoting healthy relationships with others.

Level 3 Label: (Organizational level)
Description: (The implementation of the prevention activities at this step are performed at the organizational level. The purpose of the prevention strategies here is to change the behavior of a person through the way of influencing the policies and systems within the organization. The potential sources of assistance to obtain support and messages for the organization here include the employers, local health departments, health care systems, work sites, health care plans, professional organizations and tribunal urban health clinics. Useful and applicable interventions at this level are assessing and giving feedback on the provider performance, encourage screening for the disease and promotion of using provider as well as patient reminder systems among others)

Level 4 Label: (Community level)
Description: (The implementation of the prevention strategies is performed at the community level. These interventions assist in facilitating the change of behavior of a person by influencing the institutions within the community to participate and provision of resources. The sources of information and support here include the media, schools, companies, community advocacy groups, and health departments among other neighborhoods. Possible interventions here are conducting awareness and educational campaigns to the public, collaboration with health departments to expand screening)

Level 5 Label: (Policy level)
Description: (Preventive actions at the policy level are considered here. Activities such as policy interpretation and implementation are crucial. Support for the policies may come from the government in the promotion of healthy behavior. Successful interventions include collaboration with other coalitions in communicating to the public about the policy decisions and translation of local policies for the community members)

Source: CDC. (2015). Social Ecological Model. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/crccp/sem.htm

Section 2: Health Behavior Theories

Select four of the health behavior theories described in chapter 7 of our textbook. For each theory, provide a description of the theory and explain the major concepts associated with it. Categorize which level of the social-ecological model the theory is related to. Then, generate an example of how this theory could be used in creating an intervention. This example can come from the scholarly literature or you can create your own. Use the example provided as a guide. Use at least one scholarly resource, in addition to the course textbook, cited in APA style according to the Ashford Writing Center guidelines.

Theory 1
Name of Theory: (Bioledical theory Description: (the biomedical theory assume that patients should passively receive instructions from doctors. They should do as told by the physicians. The health of a person is traced by reviewing their biomedical causes. The theory uses the word biomedical cause to mean the causing organism such as virus or bacteria. To treat or prevent the patient the doctors prescribe medicine that need to be adhered as per the given dosage.
Associated level of the Social Ecological Model: (Individual level)
Example: (When a patient is diagnosed with an illness such as typhoid, the doctor can prescribe pills to treat the sickness as per the diagnosis. When the patient fails to take the medication and does not heal, then, one can say that the client failed to follow the doctor’s instructions. The cause of the illness is biomedical where a bacterium is involved. For intervention purposes, the treatment is given depending on the body of the patient. Here, the patient did not act as a passive recipient of the doctor’s instruction.)
Source: (Ross, E., & Deverell, A. (2004). Psychosocial approaches to health, illness and disability: A reader for health care professionals. Pretoria: Van Schaik)
Theory 2
Name of Theory: (Behavioral learning theory Description: (It is a theory whose focus is on the environment as well as teaching skills with the aim of managing adherence. The theory considers the principles of antecedents as well as consequences on how they affect behavior. Antecedents is used here to mean the background cause of behavior such as thoughts and environmental cues punishment. Consequences are used to describe the results to behavior including rewards and punishment. The two variables determine the patient’s ability to follow a particular behavior)
Associated level of the Social Ecological Model: (Interpersonal level)
Example: (When a patient is given ARVs therapy, one is needed to take them as per the dosage to receive the best effects on improving the HIV/AIDs status of immunity. The antecedents here will be the skills such as patient reminders given to the person so as to accept taking and adhering to the dose. The consequences will be improved immunity of the person’s health. Failure of adhering to the intervention dosage means that they did not accept the skills training and their health will deteriorate)
Source: (World Health Organisation. (2003). Adherence to long-term therapies: Evidence for action. Geneva).
Theory 3
Name of Theory: (Health belief model) Description: (It views the change of health behavior as having a basis on rationally appraising the balance that exist between benefits as well as barriers of action. How a person perceives the seriousness of as well as susceptibility to an illness affects how that person perceives the threat of the diseases. Benefits are used to means the perceived advantages of the actions. Barriers are the negative influences towards health behavior)
Associated level of the Social Ecological Model: (Individual level)
Example: (HIV/AIDs is an illness that a person will perceive with high threat. The possibility of taking action is easy and the health benefits will be great. The benefits here are the health advantages of responding to the diseases threat by taking the required ARVs. The barriers here are not taking any action. Here, the barriers are low since the patient perceives high threat when medication is not taken. Therefore, the individual must adhere to the recommended health behavior as the effective intervention)
Source: (Munro, S., Lewin, S., Swart, T., & Volmink, J. (2007). A review of health behaviour theories: how useful are these for developing interventions to promote long-term medication adherence for TB and HIV/AIDS? BMC Public Health, 7, 104. http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-7-104.)
Theory 4
Name of Theory: (The protection-motivation theory) Description: (As per the protection-motivation theory, the change of behavior is obtained after the fears of an individual are appealed. Three elements that arouse fear are presented including the extent of harm of the represented activity, the possibility of the activity taking place and the effectiveness of the defensive reaction. All the three components combine to determine the protection motivation intensity. )
Associated level of the Social Ecological Model: (Interpersonal level)
Example: (If an individual understands a method to prevent getting infected with a disease such as diarrhea, that has a high likeliness of occurring when poor sanitation is present, then it will be necessary to maintain cleanliness to avoid getting diarrhea. The extend of harm here is getting diarrhea, the possibility is high likeliness, and defensive active effectiveness is maintaining cleanliness)
Source: (Munro, S., Lewin, S., Swart, T., & Volmink, J. (2007). A review of health behaviour theories: how useful are these for developing interventions to promote long-term medication adherence for TB and HIV/AIDS? BMC Public Health, 7, 104. http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-7-104.)


References
CDC. (2015). Social Ecological Model. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/crccp/sem.htm
Munro, S., Lewin, S., Swart, T., & Volmink, J. (2007). A review of health behavior theories: how useful are these for developing interventions to promote long-term medication adherence for TB and HIV/AIDS? BMC Public Health, 7, 104. http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-7-104.
Ross, E., & Deverell, A. (2004). Psychosocial approaches to health, illness and disability: A reader for health care professionals. Pretoria: Van Schaik
World Health Organisation. (2003). Adherence to long-term therapies: Evidence for action. Geneva

September 21, 2021

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