Healthcare Questions

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Question 2- The skin plays a key role in body temperature homeostasis.

a) Why must the body’s temperature be regulated? (40 words; 1 mark)

Answer: The body’s temperature must be regulated to maintain the body temperature for normal functioning of the body. Most biochemical functions progress at optimal body temperature. Therefore the body employs different mechanisms to help maintain a constant body temperature. (Romanovisky, 2014)

b) Describe the role the skin plays in body temperature regulation when the body is exposed to hot and cold environmental conditions

(160 words; 4 marks) [G1]

Answer: the skin receptors helps in monitoring the external temperature. During hot conditions, the skin helps regulate the temperature by evaporation of the sweat, the heat in the body is transferred to the sweat making to undergo phase change to vapour from liquid, the sweat is then eliminated and heat is lost in the process, the dermal blood cells expand on hot conditions to aid in release heat. During cold conditions, blood cells in the contract preventing heat loss, subcutaneous layer acts as an insulator. The hairs on the skin entrap the warmth on cold condition by erecting preventing heat loss and on hot condition, the h[G2] airs dilate allowing heat loss. (Romanovisky, 2014)[G3] [G4]

Question 3- Cardiovascular disease is a national health priority affecting many Australians. Elevated levels of blood cholesterol have links to cardiovascular disease.

a) What is the role of cholesterol in the body? (40 words; 1 mark)

Answer:  Cholesterol regulates the immunity and the defense mechanism, maintains many vital molecules and processes, transport lipid through blood from the liver to other body tissues in the body. Helps preventing lipid accumulation in the cell membrane, secretion of many enzymes and hormones and also in vitamin D3 synthesis, important in neuro[G5] [G6] ns in nerve impulse propagation.[G7]

b) What are the role of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in cholesterol transportation and how is it relevant to cardiovascular system health? [G8] (80 words; 2 marks) [G9]

Answer: Small amount of (LDL) impacts health in a number of ways, transports fats in the body carrying it from the liver to other body tissues, is an important molecule in many vital functions in the body especially in metabolism where it mediates cellular uptake through receptor-mediated endocytosis and lysosomal degradation. It is linked to increasing the risk of getting the cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis. (HDL) are protective lipoprotein, their role in the cardiovascular system is protecting the heart against diseases, they reverse cholesterol transport, promote in cholesterol esterification, they bind to toxic molecules in blood and they are a reservoir of Apoproteins.[G10]

c) What dietary

recommendations should be made to individuals in order to ensure blood cholesterol levels are optimal so as to maintain a healthy cardiovascular system? (80 words; 2 marks)

Answer: Reduce the intake of fatty, salty foods and those with saturated fats such as liver and kidney then replace them with foods that contain mono- and poly-unsaturated fats that include margarine, sunflower. Consume foods such as vegetables, seed oils, fruits and whole grains such as bread, increase the intake of food with high dietary fiber. Going for the regular check-up at the doctor. The active lifestyle that involves moderate aerobic activity help to lower the cholesterol levels such as walking and running is enough to increase the heart rate.[G11] [G12] [G13] [G14] [G15] [G16] [G17]

Question 4- Vitamin B9 (folate) and iron are examples of essential nutrients that are important for a healthy body. For both Vitamin B9 and iron:

a) Name two food sources high in the nutrient (40 words; 1 mark)

Answer:  Foods that are fortify enriched with both vitamin B9 and iron are grain products: cereals, bread, pasta, and rice. The other source is natural products including broccoli, beans, peas, lentils and dark leafy greens.[G18] [G19] [G20]

b) Describe the functions of the nutrient in maintaining good health for pregnant and non-pregnant individuals (80 words; 2 marks)

Answer:  Maintaining a good health gives both individuals to develop a strong immune system protecting the mother and the baby from health risks. For no pregnant individuals, nutrients help to prepare the body for various demands and ensuring adequate nutritional [G21] status. For pregnant woman, nutrient provides the body the energy and also to give the body micronutrients that are essential for both the mother and the fetus. Insufficient uptake of nutrients during pregnancy will retard the fetus development.[G22] [G23] [G24] [G25]

c) Describe the possible consequences to the body if there is a deficiency in the nutrient. (80 words; 2 marks)

Answer: Deficiency in nutrition affect how the brain works, affects the physical looks of an individual, among other negative health effects. Poor nutrition can result in obesity and this puts one at a risk of getting many diseases such as diabetes and even cardiovascular diseases as a result of high cholesterol. Stroke caused by the formation of an obstacle at blood vessel is a consequence of poor nutrition which breaks as a clot and travels to the brain. Several types of cancer can develop including colon and bladder cancers.[G26] [G27]

Work cited

Department of Health & Human Services. “Cholesterol.” Better Health Channel,     Department of Health & Human Services, 28 Feb. 2014,

“How to Lower Cholesterol.” Self-Help Tips to Fight Mild Fatigue | Healthdirect, Healthdirect Australia,

Romanovsky, Andrej A. Advances in Pediatrics., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Mar. 2014,

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October 13, 2023

Food Health



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