Learning to write and read

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One recurrent theme is ethnic disparities, and another is gender and race prejudice, which prevented students from attending classes. Any people feel out of place when learning to read because they had already been judged based on their mental capacity or gender. Adult literacy services located in schools are the key outlets for learning, where they take grammar, reading, and writing classes. They are then given GED and SAT exams.

There were dedicated lessons delivered in classrooms that were geared to the needs of the adults. Teachers were distributed assignments and essays, which contained journal entries that enhanced writing skills. Group discussions where the students conversed on particular topics and even specific activities were an important aspect.

As an adult learner there are too many distractions, one could be a parent and multitasking between such tasks and reading can be hectic. Being with unfamiliar age-groups is also uncomfortable and scary for most adults. Other reasons include inadequate time and energy to dedicate to reading; some adults may lack motivation or feel they have nothing to gain from enrolling in adult classes. Fear of failure also pushes them away.

There are related aspects such as gender bias which has seen women discriminated or shunned from schools for being pregnant, or just for being a woman. Such instances are evident in some cultures where a woman’s need for education is not of emphasis. Students who underperform also end up dropping out if they don’t get proper guidance.

Colonialism refers to how individual countries set out to undermine the foundations of a country’s original people, by forcing assimilation, which leads to political, social and economic dysfunction. The focus of education in residential schools changed from developing spiritual and vocational skills to literacy practices which were contrary to the original people’s traditions.

One difference is the skills emphasized in each, in aboriginal literacies the emphasis was on cultural values and historical experiences, while dominant literacies emphasize on technical skills without proper context. The curriculum was also limited in regards to teachings, with today’s curriculum covering a wide range of topics.

Forbidding the children was a way of making them forget their native language which created a language barrier, while also assimilating them and teaching them mainstream culture, which would cause them to lose their values, morals and forget their beliefs.

It is important to note that home community backgrounds affect how children and adults learn. Some communities do not value education, and this must be corrected in the school setup, by helping learners raise their expectations. Instructors should also learn to appreciate the diverse literacies that learners bring with them.


Moayeri, M., & Smith, J. (2010). The Unfinished Stories of Two First Nations Mothers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 53(5), 408-417. doi:10.1598/jaal.53.5.6

Downy, G. (2016). The Secret Path [Video file]. Retrieved from http://secretpath.ca/

Moayeri, M. (2008). Images of Residential Schools [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IBzT1G4G-40

Portland Community College (2010). Adult Basic Education [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gPaAQI3PWb0

October 25, 2022

Education Psychology

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