Linguistics Research

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Linguistics has had a profound impact on economic, social, and cultural behavior. For the longest period, language was the primary mode of communication. Significantly, the manner in which information is delivered has elicited a variety of emotions and actions. The purpose of this research is to analyze an article named 'A Comparative Analytical Study on Alternative Energy Sources for Vehicles.' The analysis will focus on analyzing the article's readability as well as identifying important contrasts between pseudoscience and true science. It takes more than just putting words on paper to write an article. It necessitates a keen emphasis on the intended audience, the substance, and the emotion elicited by the article. For instance, the target audience in this article is mainly governments, pro-environment activists, and players in the car manufacturing industry. The assertion is backed by the contents of this article’s title.

The article was published by Elsevier Ltd in 2015, and the authoring of the article is credited to Adem Ugurlu and Semiha Oztuna (Ugurlu & Oztuna, 2015). The authoring of this article was incited by the continued campaign for environmentally friendly energy sources and the continued depletion of oil, which has been the key source of energy for automobiles. Oil has been preferred for its multiple merits but has drawn much criticism owing to its effects on the environment. Notably, carbon dioxide, which is one of the common gases emitted as a byproduct of oil combustion, is infamous for contributing significantly to the destruction of the ozone layer. The consequence of this has been global warming that is continually taking a toll on the environment. These are some of the grim realities cited in this article with the focus of inciting prompt action to seek new sources of energy (Ugurlu & Oztuna, 2015). Furthermore, as the global population continues to grow, it is imperative that oil will not be a reliable source to cater for this population. However, while looking to adopt environmentally sources of energy, it is important to note that these sources of energy must be suitable for the automobiles. Not to mention, automobiles play a significant role in enabling economic growth in large and emerging markets.

Readability analysis of the article- 6 characteristics of article readability

Having good content in an article is one thing and ensuring that the article is readable is another. Unfortunately, most authors miss the readability aspect of their work hence comprising its usefulness. Moreover, failure to ensure that the article is readable could derail the efforts to communicate the intended message. The article in question has however been able to meet the threshold required for readability. The six readability characteristics that this article has addressed include density, length of sentences and paragraphs, use of bullets, font and column arrangement and simple language.

Addressing particular readers

The article in question is very clear on the target audience. By highlighting the target readers at the very beginning of the paper makes it very easy for the readers to make the conclusion in this regard. The main target audience in this article is the automobile manufacturing companies. Just to reiterate, the article delves into the subject of alternative sources of energy for automobiles instead of the continued use of oil. Needless to mention, the automobile manufacturers ought to comprise the largest percentage of readers in this article. By making it clear on who the target audience, the article is to attract the right audience and pass the intended information comprehensively.

Helps readers solve problems

A good article does not only present the readers with the perceived problem but also helps the readers understand some of the ways in which the problem can be solved. In disciplines like philosophy, a problem can be raised without necessarily giving a solution to it in the same article. It is because such kind of literature is meant to invoke curiosity and innovative intervention. For scientific articles, however, it is imperative that the article helps the readers solve the problem at hand. The article does so by discussing alternative sources of energy such as hydrogen, electric motors, liquefied petroleum gas and compressed natural gas among others. Besides citing these alternative sources of energy, the article goes further to break down the chemical properties of these energy sources and highlights where they are preferable to oil.

Collaborative production

No one single person can brag about having all the information regarding a particular subject and more so science related subjects. Scientific matters are more often than not sensitive in the sense that one can easily arrive at inconclusive findings just because they failed to address one simple aspect. The article in question proposes a consideration and adoption of alternative energy sources for automobiles because of the imminent depletion of oil and its implications on the environment. To ensure that the proposed alternatives are environmentally friendly and usable by the automobiles, the article has been authored by two reputable scientists, Ugurlu and Oztuna besides being subjected to peer review to iron out its content. More often than not, collaborative authoring and production discourage pseudoscience.

Use of design to increase readability

One of the key qualities of a good article is a systematic approach to addressing the issue at hand. Following a systematic approach does not only make the article appealing but also enhance its readability. The article in question follows a scientific design in which case it presents a hypothesis at the beginning and then follows through with findings founded on in-depth research to emphasize the hypothesis. Additionally, the article makes use of technical features such as graphical representations to help paint an even more vivid picture in the reader's mind on the need to seek alternative sources of energy. Besides these features, the color-coding on the article varies in different sections to make reading more exciting and create emphasis on key factors.

Incorporating images

Use of images in articles draw the curiosity of readers, but most importantly, they help create a more vivid mental picture regarding the subject of discussion. The authors of this article understood this, and it is for that reason that the article contains graphical illustrations and tables that have more color saturation than the other sections of the article. One of the graphical illustration for instance explicitly indicates the carbon composition of the various sources of energy for automobiles. In essence, while the reader may have difficulty in understanding the impact of oil on the environment, the data presented in the graph helps create a clear perspective.

Reflects organizations goals and culture

Science Direct, the company behind the article, prides itself in presenting scientific facts, which are founded on solid research and sufficient experiments. Science direct is well aware of pseudoscience hence the need for reliable scientific conclusions is embedded in the culture of the organization. The article in question has not disappointed regarding giving reliable and well-researched scientific conclusions. The presentation of the document and the backing of the information therein by other reputable peer-reviewed articles reflects the culture and the objectives of science direct.

Overall, the writing quality of this article is impeccable is considering that the article has managed to emphasize the need to get alternative sources of energy without putting excessive emphasis on the scientific terminologies. Additionally, the flow of the article depicts utmost organization. For instance, the first subtopic acts as the basis for the entire paper in the sense that it outlines the various propulsion methods used by automobiles (Ugurlu & Oztuna, 2015). The second subtopic discusses the alternative sources of energy for automobiles, and that are friendlier to the environment. Notably, if these paragraphs were inverted, the article would be deprived of a good flow, which would further affect readability. Additionally To emphasis on the need for alternative sources and give the reader a clear perspective, the article features a graphical illustration of carbon composition in various energy sources. Form the very beginning of this article, it is easy to understand what it pertains.

Scientific methodologies

Scientific methods and method used

To present comprehensive and reliable information, this article includes information from other peer-reviewed literature and research. Notably, when it comes to science, one can be easily duped. The reason behind this is that there is a good number of self-proclaimed scientists who are very good at explaining a concept without having any basis for it. For this reason, articles discussing scientific facts ought to be vetted thoroughly to ensure that the information presented therein is true, reliable, verified and testable. The article in question has followed a scientific approach is discussing the subject. Notably, the scientific method of article presentation has five steps. The very first step is observation. The article in question has started by making the observation that oil, which is the common source of energy for automobiles, is nearing exhaustion, and besides, it is unfriendly to the environment. It is then followed by the question of alternative sources of energy that can be exploited.

The third step is forming a hypothesis. The article in question presented the hypotheses that there are more reliable sources of automobile energy that can be exploited. Moreover, the article sites some of these alternative sources of energy such as compressed natural gas, biodiesel and hydrogen among others. These alternative sources, like oil, have their merits and demerits, but they can be effective sources of energy if they were to be exploited. After presenting the hypotheses, the next step is making predictions based on the hypotheses. In this case, the prediction revolves around the decrease in carbon emissions following the adoption of the alternative sources of energy (Ugurlu & Oztuna, 2015). In this regard, the article gives a graphical illustration of the carbon ratio of five sources of energy namely propane, methane, butane, diesel and gasoline. After making the prediction, the article gives another hypothesis, which asserts that alternative sources of energy can be exploited to ensure the sustainability of the automobile industry and the conservation of the environment.

Pseudoscience vs. real science

The term ‘pseudo’ means fake. To be to tell the real from the fake, it is important that one familiarizes themselves with the real more so in science. Notably, knowing certain scientific facts such as the distance of the earth from the moon does not mean that one knows science. Knowing science means understanding the criteria of evidence, the nature of experiments, evaluating possibilities, testing hypotheses among others to draw a reliable conclusion. Pseudoscience does not focus on any such efforts but rather on presenting unfounded assertions. The conclusions of pseudoscientists are then based on these baseless assertions, and the cycle continues. Interestingly, pseudoscience often begins with an emotionally captivating hypothesis, which is implausible to a great extent. It is then followed up with content that appears to support the hypothesis. Notably, evidence that tends to conflict the pseudoscience evidence is often ignored just so the pseudoscientist can sell their fallacy.

While pseudoscience remains science literature branch characterized by unfounded scientific conclusions, pseudoscience content can remain in circulation for a long time. A good example in this regard in textbooks used in schools. These books are updated occasionally yet the added information may not be backed by comprehensive research. It does not, however, imply that science textbook distributed to schools do not contain true scientific facts. Notably, pseudoscience like real science is published in articles that are then uploaded to the internet for public reading. Unfortunately, to the untrained eye, distinguishing pseudoscience from real science can be daunting and almost impossible. One of the key identifiers of pseudoscience is reliance on subjective validation. It, therefore, means that pseudoscience contains information, which is meant to spark different opinions and points of view from the readers.

Notably, the article in question is very clear on the subject it delves on, and it gives solid evidence and research to back up the findings. Moreover, the article presents physical properties of the alternative sources of energy besides highlighting aspects that make these sources preferable to oil. Pseudoscience relies on conventions of human culture that are arbitrary to a large extent instead of relying on regularities of nature that remain unaltered. The interpretation of astrology, for instance, is pegged on the names of things, which differ from one culture to the next. For example, if ancient societies referred to Jupiter as mars, astrology as we know it would be completely different. Astronomy, on the other hand, would most likely be, as we know since it does not care about arbitrary conventions but rather on physical properties that remain unchanged.


The article in question discusses alternative sources of energy but begins by citing the need for these alternative sources of energy. Notably, the article begins by highlighting that the source of the energy that is widely in use presently, oil, contributes significantly to environmental degradation and its supply may not support the automobile industry in the long run. For this reason, the article presents other alternative sources of energy, which will be effective sources of energy for the automobiles besides being environmentally friendly (Ugurlu & Oztuna, 2015). In as far as, the scientific reliability of the article is concerned, the article follows a scientific method to build on its hypothesis. The article is thus separated from pseudoscience, which is synonymous with presenting scientific facts that lack the backing of in-depth research and comprehensive experiments. In my opinion, the article is impeccably written, and it is a journal I would consider for submission in the future.


Ugurlu, A., & Oztuna, S. (2015). A comparative analysis study of alternative energy sources for automobiles. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 40(34), 11178-11188.

May 24, 2023

Language Communication

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