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Change management refers to the methods, tools, and mechanisms that are used to refreeze, transfer, and unfreeze policies, principles, and activities in the workplace (Cameron & Green, 2015; Todnem, 2005). Unfreezing, on the other hand, refers to the emergence of a professed separation between a business company's ideal and actual state, which creates a desire for change and decreases human resistance to change. The term "refreezing" refers to the recreation or reestablishment of a new equilibrium state with a workplace by steadying new trends by support structures. Moving in change management refers to numerous processes for instance restructuring, education, and training that lead to the formation of new beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors (Cummings & Worley, 2005).
Change management in a business workplace makes use of an organizational tool to help people make successful transition leading to realization and adoption of change. The present-day economic climate pressure and growing political significances increases the need for workplace change every day (Paton & McCalman, 2008; Cummings & Worley, 2005). Change is complex and managing it may prove to be a difficult task as it possesses negative and positive outcomes. This research paper presents literature on change management. The paper gives a definition of change management as outlined by different scholars, change management models, reasons for change management, and steps for change management at work.
This section presents a literature review on existing studies of change management. It provides a description of change management as explained by numerous scholar. In addition, the section focuses on different change models while giving a general overview of change in the workplace. It tries to point out different reasons why change is necessary for a business workplace and factors that enhance change management in the workplace.
According to Hiatt and Creasey change management refers to the application of tools and processes to manage the side change of people from a present to a future new state that leads to the achievement of desired outcomes, for instance, desired return on investment for a business. Todnem (2005) defines change management as the adoption of behavior process, procedure, or an idea that is new to a business. On the other hand, Cameron & Green (2015) opines that change management is an incessant process of bringing a business into line with its marketplace and making it be more effective and responsive than competitors. In regards to change management, organizational change refers to a transformative change which occurs through complex models systems of adaptive change.
Organizational change is made up of three steps increased organizing, threshold and tension, and recently developing configuration (Cummings & Worley, 2005). It implies moving an organization from the present plateau towards an anticipated future state to ensure that increased organizational effectiveness and efficiency is achieved. From the above literature, it is evident that many researchers have different ways of defining change management. Even though the definitions slightly vary, all are trying to explain the same concepts of assimilating new tools and procedures to existing one as a way of designing ways to achieve optimum effectiveness and efficiency of business in a workplace. therefore, these definitions will help to enlighten the issue of change management in the workplace.
Cameron and Green (2015) provide different change management models comprised of continuous change process model, Kotter’s model of change, and Lewin’s model of change. The continuous change process model approaches change from a top management perspective and elaborate the continuity of change. This model integrates Lewin’s model during its implementation. The management opines that certain trends or forces in a business workplace call for change. The top management outlines its objectives in relation to processes, procedures or ideas that should be altered. Kotter’s model of change is applicable at a strategic level where an organization is in need of transformation as a whole or changing the vision. It is made of six stages that will be analyzed in the coming section. Lastly, Lewin’s model of change is one of the earliest models developed in 1947 by Lewin Kurt. Lewin’s model is made up of three stages unfreeze, change, and refreeze (Cameron & Green, 2015).
In the article “Beyond change management: How to achieve breakthrough results through conscious change leadership.”, Anderson and Anderson provide five comprehensive stages that aid in managing change. The steps include the creation of a business change, development of a common vision, buy-ins communication, change management, and adjusting and adopting a change in the workplace (Anderson, & Anderson, 2010). Five steps mentioned are important because it unites colleagues in a workplace. Everyone will be working towards the attainment of a common goal thus it becomes easier to manage change.
Hiatt and Creasey (2003) provides numerous reasons for the change in a business workplace. Many individuals with different and unique characteristics are found in a workplace. Some people are quick to adopt change while some are slow to adopt, and sometimes there are rare cases of people who resist change. Change in a workplace can be due to numerous factors, for example, the need to change vision, move office locations, leadership’s needs, and additionally the need to alter existing processes and ideas to increase financial outcomes of a business. This literature is important for this study because it offers distinct reasons why people or a business undergoes a change. After understanding reasons for the change, it is easy for top leaders and all employees in general to adopt the change.
There are a number of people who can be involved in workplace change management (Hayes, 2014). In most cases, change management in a business workplace is headed by a self-governing third party or a company’s employee who has change management experience. The person in charge of change management works alongside other external individuals such as investors, customer, and much more depending on the kind of change that needs to be implemented. Change may also imply that the company or business advances its technology and someone good at the implemented technology is put in charge (Hayes, 2014).
Numerous factors can cause change resistance as discussed by Pardo del Val and Martínez Fuentes (2003). We are aware that many people do not receive change well and this may be difficult because change is inevitable. Change can either be directly or indirectly adopted in a workplace. In order to gain a perceptive understanding of change management, it is necessary to know different factors that lead to change resistance. Internal and external factors can cause change resistance in a workplace for instance, societal, political, economic, and market trends.
Change Management in Business Workplace
Change management helps pioneers get ready individuals for their new work environment, connect with their representatives all through the change, and drive positive results. Individuals frequently reaction to change differently. The curve below illustrates change management in working environment setting.
Change Curve, (Hayes, 2014)
This curve represents a well-known model showing the distinctive phases of the manner in which individuals respond to change; starting with denial-resistance-acceptance-commitment. The change management prepare employees at workplace undergo this model and move their reasoning and conduct from opposing change to focusing on their new workplace (Paton & McCalman, 2008). It is an organized approach that concurs with the work environment methodology, plan, and development plan. The thought is to accomplish a brought together social move for representatives from their present workplace to their future workspace.
Models of Change Management
From the Literature review section, three models of change management are described. The models of change management include Kotter’s model of change, the continuous change model, and Lewin’s model.
The Continuous Change Process Model
This model view change as a continuous process in an organization. Change management is coordinated by the top management of the company. Management sees that specific powers or patterns call for change and the matter is subjected to the company’s typical critical thinking and basic leadership forms. Choices for change are created, assessed and a worthy alternative is chosen. A change management agent may be selected to coordinate change at a business workplace. Management of change is the procedure of deliberately arranging, sorting out and actualizing change from the dismantling of the present state to the acknowledgment of a completely utilitarian future state inside a company. When change happens, the organization is in neither the old state nor the new state, yet business must proceed.
Kotter's Change Model
Kotter’s change model is utilized at the vital level of a company to change its vision and accordingly change the business. The initial step of Kotter's eight stage way to deal with change management recommends production of the feeling of earnestness. Step two is to shape a capable coalition of directors to work with the safest individuals. At that point, an arrangement ought to be made comprising of a vision and methodologies to quicken the change (Kotter & Schlesinger, 1979). Next stride is conveying the vision to help individuals realize that change is close which makes them more averse to oppose change. Step six manages to urge and rousing individuals to embrace change. The last stride alludes to supporting the change and rolling out modification as a fundamental improvement. It concentrates on rolling out the improvements more changeless (Kotter & Schlesinger, 1979).
Lewin's Model of Change
Lewis model of change is one of the oldest change models created in 1947 by Kurt Lewin. The Lewin's model is separated into three steps: unfreeze, change and refreeze. It is the procedure whereby a business moves starting with one equilibrium point then onto the next, called as a balance or move the display. The principal definition of unfreezing alludes to adjusting the current stable balance which keeps up present practices and demeanors. Moving or changing alludes to subjective rebuilding, where the performing employees secure data and confirmation demonstrating that change is alluring and conceivable (Cameron & Green, 2015). The third step refreezing. In the midst of this stage, all conformities in the change stage are made and another balance is set up. This incorporates setting up a system that ensures the new levels of direct will be modestly secure against reversal to prior techniques for operation.
Reasons for Change Management.
The results and consequences of workplace changes are distinctively and indivisibly connected to individual delegates doing their occupations whatever another way. A wonderfully forming process that no one takes after produces no adjustment in execution. A perfectly arranged advancement that no one uses makes no additional motivator to the association. Immaculately described work parts that are not fulfilled by delegates pass on no bolstered results. Despite whether in the workplace, in your gathering or in government, the framework between a quality plan and favorable position affirmation is individuals getting a handle on and grasping the change.
Change management engages laborers to grasp a change so that business objectives are accomplished. It is the expansion of results and arrangements and is for the most part about people and the total some portion of changing change into productive outcomes for our associations. Besides, change management helps delegates come back to work quickly and satisfactorily and therefore lessen expenses and cut off effectiveness hardship. People and space address the two greatest bits of an association's budgetary arrangement and a smooth change management program improves these favorable circumstances by decreasing costs and holding unrivaled laborers. People by nature are flexible and can adjust to new workplaces whether they like them or not. Regardless, without a well completely considered change program, laborers may not be as viable and gainful in the new space as in the old. Change management ensures that delegates are valuable and performing to their best limits.
An inside and out masterminded change management program diminishes push, upgrades delegate engagement, and success nearby their general satisfaction with the association. Specialists need to feel regarded, respected and recognized and change management helps them end up being more joyful with their new workspace and, all things considered, the agent encounter.
Steps for Change Management at Workplace
Creation of a Business Case to be Changed
The program change begins with understanding the business's motivation for the change and its ability to adequately acclimate to that change. It's important that association pioneers are "clear" and "genuine" about the reasons and farthest point as to change. A thorough examination of the perils and openings related to the proposed change and an appreciation of the increases, costs, and threats of taking off or not making the change is essential (Anderson, & Anderson, 2010). This movement joins a status assessment of the business capacity to execute change. There are various drivers for workplace change like budgetary conditions, regulatory changes, mergers and acquisitions, modification, improvement, advancement, and upkeep, lease or limitless diverse causes.
Development of a Common Business Vision
Actually, most organizations hop directly into working environment configuration ventures without involving employees, overlooking their needs, making uncertainty and instability. It is best to adopt a group strategy to make a typical vision and spell out how the future will be not quite the same as the past and make that vision a reality. Prove based outline look into in the work environment is fundamental in making the vision and adjusting the business culture to the plan. Research can likewise encourage better correspondence with representatives about the premise and explanations behind work environment outline choices to limit their worries (Anderson, & Anderson, 2010).
Change communications guarantees that the general population influenced by the change comprehend the change and are set up for the change. Effective communications are multi-pronged, directed to particular groups of onlookers and kept up for the duration of the life of the venture. Workers expect clear, compact, genuine and steady messages (Anderson, & Anderson, 2010). The prior the correspondences the better as it requires investment for individuals to modify rationally to a working environment change. Specialists need to think about the new building, nearby civilities, furniture, innovation, space outline, development and move plan and when all is said in done, how the change influences them (Anderson, & Anderson, 2010). Specialized strategies fluctuate and are focused on exceptional groups of onlookers to take off bits of gossip and imperviousness to change. They can incorporate vis-à-vis gatherings, virtual bulletin, every now and again made inquiries, webcams of development, virtual visits, recordings, and.
An ideal approach to deal with the change is to choose and enable a council of changes operators who advocate for their specialties and for the upgrades coming in the new space. These change operators are a vital piece of the change procedure and go about as a connection, offering the change, dispersing bits of gossip and taking bits of knowledge and perceptions back to the change management and venture group. Delegating resistors and spoilers as change backers will help in testing the benefits of the change approach. This can be troublesome at the outset yet will pay off over the long haul as resistors turn out to be exceptionally persuasive and steadfast promoters (Anderson, & Anderson, 2010).
Adoption and Adjustment to Workplace Change
Change is esteemed to be effective when it turns into the "new typical routine." An audit of the change program aids leaders to see how the change met arranged results and how well people acclimated to their new work environment. Information and measurements built up in step one are utilized to assess achievement, make modification and abstain from backpedaling to the way things were (Anderson, & Anderson, 2010). Change management is progressing and information gathered to bolster the work environment change ought to persist past the move for constant enhancements. As an organization develops so does its business system and along these lines, its work environment procedure and information can bolster the association's pioneers in conceptualizing conceivable improvements and advancements.
Anderson, D., & Anderson, L. A. (2010). Beyond change management: How to achieve breakthrough results through conscious change leadership. John Wiley & Sons.
Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools, and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers.
Carnall, C. A. (2007). Managing change in organizations. Pearson Education.
Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2005). Organizational Development and Change, Ohio, South-Western.
Hayes, J. (2014). The theory and practice of change management. Palgrave Macmillan.
Hiatt, J., & Creasey, T. J. (2003). Change management: The people side of change. Prosci.
Kotter, J. P., & Schlesinger, L. A. (1979). Choosing strategies for change (pp. pp-106). Harvard Business Review.
Pardo del Val, M., & Martínez Fuentes, C. (2003). Resistance to change: a literature review and empirical study. Management Decision, 41(2), 148-155.
Paton, R. A., & McCalman, J. (2008). Change management: A guide to effective implementation. Sage.
Todnem, B. R. (2005). Organizational change management: A critical review. Journal of change management, 5(4), 369-380.
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