Mechanism of Action of Sleep Easy

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Sleep Easy is a pharmacological product with a combination of analgesic and anesthetic properties. The product is ideal for pain management and when a patient needs a surgical operation. The nurse should administer the product as an intervention when the manifests with high degree pain in any section of the body (Ekins et al. 2009, p.32). Also, the product has the potential to numb the body making it easy for surgeons to perform their operation without much suffering for the patients (Lambert 2017, p.344).

Drug Administration

This drug can be administered orally, through intravenous infusions, and inhalation depending on the urgency of the situation. Intravenous infusion ensures high onset of action and it is thus recommended in emergency situations where the intervention is required immediately to save the patient’s life. Similarly, the inhalation method of administration is ideal when interested in a fast onset of action of localized anesthesia (Raffa et al. 2011, p.232). The inhalation is used in cases that involve the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. Some of the procedures that involve inhalation anesthetics include endoscopy and laryngoscopy that requires the inserting of equipment through the GIT tract. The anesthetics are applied to prevent discomfort associated with the process (Schenone et al. 2017, p.233). On the other hand, the parenteral administration may be used when the product’s bioavailability is not needed in high doses, and the situation is not severe.

Side Effects

The use of Sleep Easy product is associated with several mild side effects including respiratory depression. As such, nurses should be careful when administering this product to prevent cases of fatal side effects. Patients with past history of chest congestion, difficulty breathing, cardiac arrhythmia, and any other form of respiratory conditions should not use the product. Additionally, if the nurses notice serious cases of side effects, they should discontinue using the product and use an alternative analgesic and anesthetic (Siddiq et al. 2017, p.122).

Comparison of Sleep Easy with Real Drugs in the Market

There are several anesthetic molecules in the pharmaceutical market including propofol, barbiturates, etomidate, ketamine, and benzodiazepines ( Amersfoort et al. 2012, p.433). Just like Sleep Easy, these molecules are available in varying formulations including an injectable and gaseous form for inhalation which gives the doctor the leeway to choose the best method to apply for a given patient depending on their medical condition. The product is highly soluble in oils and act by inhibiting the excitatory neurotransmitter receptors which result in reversible unconsciousness and lack of response to any environmental stimuli (Zhou et al. 2015, p.123). Thus, the product is applied to patients set to undergo highly painful procedures or medical operations which would cause numerous discomforts for the patient. This product has significant improvements which will enhance the functionality and improve the achievement of ED50 (50% effective dose) thus reaching the target sites much quicker and initiating its mechanism of action to inhibit the sensory receptors thus allowing a successful procedure (Bhaskar and Jagtap 2011, p.212).

The analgesics include paracetamol and COX-2 inhibitors which act by inhibiting the process of prostaglandins production (Suokas et al. 2014, p.23). Easy Sleep has similar characteristics with the COX-2 inhibitors such as aceclofenac. The product is a phenyl acetic acid derivative that is packaged in tablet form to be taken orally. The mechanism of action of this Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID) is the inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzyme which mediates the inhibition of prostaglandins (Zhou et al. 2015, p.112). This product is well tolerated by a majority of the people but may lead to minor side effects including dizziness, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, and constipation. Unlike diclofenac, these molecules inhibit COX-2 as opposed to COX-1 which makes it more GIT friendly than the other NSAID molecules. The parenteral administration requires that 100mg of the molecule is given by mouth BID (twice daily) (Siddiq et al. 2017, p.128). The product is helpful in all forms of pain including osteoarthritis, rheumatic arthritis, sprain, lumbago, joint pains, and dysmenorrhea. However, unlike other aceclofenac molecules in the market, the current technology has allowed the combination of the product with an anesthetic which can be dispensed in different formulations including injections and inhalation. This development enhances the product’s bioavailability and the onset of action to ensure quick recovery from pain as well as inflammation (Schenone et al.2017, p.240).

Proposed Methods to Test Mechanism of Action

Sleep Easy is a new product whose mechanism of action is still under investigation. The pharmacological guidelines provide that any new product needs to be reviewed for possible interactions, side effects, mechanism of actions, 50% lethal dose, 50% effective dose, and methods of administration to guarantee safety during its administration ( Amersfoort et al. 2012, p.445). While Easy Sleep combines some molecules that have been in existence for long, it is paramount to note that this specific combination is new and, therefore, requires vigorous testing before it is released to the conventional pharmaceutical market (Ekins et al. 2009, p.21). The following techniques will be useful in determining the mechanism of action of the product as well as its effectiveness:


The bioactive substances in sleep Easy product induce changes in the phenotypes of the specific target cells. To understand the mechanism of action of the specific molecules in the product, the pharmaceutical agent should perform an analysis to determine the changes in shape, cell composition, and the changes in the structure of the cell walls and the cell membranes of the target cells (Jespersen et al. 2015, p.2323). Sleep Easy has specific molecules responsible for the inhibition of COX-2 enzyme which is responsible for the production of prostaglandins. For the product to effect this action, it is necessary it attaches to the prostaglandin receptors. These receptors are on the cell surface of the target cells which alter its functioning thus inhibiting the production of prostaglandins. The receptors are found in most nucleated cells and have autocrine and paracrine lipid mediators (Schenone et al. 2017, p.240).

 These mediators act on the endothelium, platelets and mast cells to ensure that they respond to the presence of the analgesic by opening up the receptors in readiness for binding. The scientists can use a high-resolution microscope to study the change on the surface receptors which will be critical in analyzing the mechanism of opening of the receptors and binding of the analgesic molecules (Siddiq et al. 2017, p.123). Also, a high power electrophoresis device may be applied to determine changes in the chemical constituents of the cell. The changes may be characterized by an increase or decrease of specific primary and secondary cell signaling molecules which may include cyclic AMP, adenylyl cyclase, and protein kinase A (Jespersen et al. 2015,p.2330). A significant increase in a specific neurotransmitter directly suggests its contribution to the mechanism of action of Sleep Easy. For example, if an analysis conducted to study the concentration of neurotransmitter in a cell subjected to the specific drug shows a relative increase of dopamine when compared to the control, it means that dopamine is the neurotransmitter that is responsible for the change in the structure of the receptors and the consequent binding of the analgesic (Olsen and DeLorey.2013, p.23).

When using microscopy, the scientist should ensure that they use a conspicuous dye to allow them to conduct successful in vivo experiments ( Amersfoort et al. 2012, p.442). If, for example, the researcher uses an analgesic or anesthetic containing a dye, they can use high-density cameras to trace the movement of the product through the system of a study animal such as a mouse. The dye will enhance efficacy and ensure clarity on the step-wise process of opening of the receptor cells. These findings will offer critical help in determining the mechanism of action of the new product Sleep Easy. While the mechanism of action of the anesthetics is still under intense research to improve congruency of findings, it is clear that the product works by inhibiting the excitatory transmission with the main targets being the GABA receptors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (Olsen and DeLorey.2013, p.30). To determine the mechanism of action of the binding of Sleep Easy anesthetic product, a similar procedure as analgesic will be conducted where dyed molecules will be introduced into a lab animal to trace the movement of the product and the mechanism of opening the receptors and bindings. Biochemical experiments will be conducted to determine the concentration of the mediators thus allowing the researchers to make a conclusion on the mechanism of action ( Amersfoort et al. 2012, p.440).

Direct Biomechanical Tests

As aforementioned, the biochemical tests are crucial in determining the mechanism of action of a product with precision. This method offers an opportunity to use a laboratory animal to trace the movement of the new pharmaceutical product all over the body. The biochemical methods are used with other numerous tests that help in determining the change in the concentration of various indicators in the body. It helps in determining the cause of various reactions that a pharmaceutical product may induce and consequently presented as a side effect (Raffa et al. 2011, p.231). In the case of Sleep Easy, the product has a combination of analgesic and anesthetic properties and has been shown to contain side effects presented as respiratory distress in some patients. Although the severity of the side effects has been labeled as mild, it is crucial that the causes behind it are determined (Siddiq et al. 2017, p.125).

The scientists will utilize a guinea pig to conduct the experiment where it will be injected with a dyed sample of Sleep Easy. The scientists will then trace the changes in the physical behavior of the pig as well as observe the sequential movement of the product through the system (Schenone et al. 2017, p.240). This approach will help the researchers in determining the specific points where the agents responsible for the side effects are produced. Also, the scientists will successfully study the movement of the product, the target organs, and the pharmacokinetics of the product.

After determining the specific organ of interest for Sleep Easy, the scientists can use a virtual organ bath to make clearer deductions on the functioning of the product. The live organ from the experimental organs will be maintained at the ideal conditions until the experiment is complete ( Amersfoort et al. 2012, p.430). The use of this technique will offer the researcher immense benefits as they will be in a position to control the timings and study the occurrences of the organs more closely. Once the mediators responsible for the functioning of the compound are established, the scientists will easily tabulate the mechanism of action of the product, the pharmacodynamics as well as the pharmacokinetics of the product (Jespersen et al.2015,p.2326).

Computation Inference Method

This technique will be beneficial in determining the protein targets for the molecules in Sleep Easy with much more precision. The technique uses highly complex processes in determining the protein patterns (Raffa et al. 2011, p.240). This process is implemented after the successful implementation of the first two steps and determining the specific section of the protein is responsible for the mechanism of action of Sleep Easy. It studies ligand binding and kinase/inhibitor relationships influencing the mechanism of action of the product. This will get into deeper details on the opening and binding of the product on the target cells (Siddiq et al. 2017, p.127). It also offers precise information on the types of proteins produced in the process and their contribution in the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and the efficiency of the new product.


The determination of the mechanism of action of Sleep Easy requires a series of biochemical and pharmaceutical procedures. The product is new and has combined two molecules which have analgesic and anesthetic properties. The product has been found to have mild side effects associated with a compromised functioning of the respiratory system. A thorough analysis of the new product should, therefore, be conducted to ensure that it is safe for administration. The biochemical procedures will help in the determination of the mediators or the change in the constitution of the cell that has led to the adverse reaction. There exist several methods that the researchers can apply in determining the mechanism of action, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of the new product. The methods include microscopy, use of live organ bath, biochemical experiments, and the use of computerized systems in determining changes in kinase/inhibitor reactions.

In future, researchers should develop mechanisms of analysis that are quicker in analyzing the specific components of mediators and other substances produced after the administration of a given product. This will be helpful in ensuring that chances of death associated with giving the wrong doses, products, or even severe side effects are significantly reduced.


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October 13, 2023



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